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The ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase is a master checkpoint regulator safeguarding the genome. Upon DNA damage, the ATR-ATRIP complex is recruited to sites of DNA damage by RPA-coated single-stranded DNA and activated by an elusive process. Here, we show that ATR is transformed into a hyperphosphorylated state after DNA damage,(More)
TopBP1 and Claspin are adaptor proteins that facilitate phosphorylation of Chk1 by the ATR kinase in response to genotoxic stress. Despite their established requirement for Chk1 activation, the exact way in which TopBP1 and Claspin control Chk1 phosphorylation remains unclear. We show that TopBP1 tightly colocalizes with ATR in distinct nuclear(More)
PRP19 is a ubiquitin ligase involved in pre-mRNA splicing and the DNA damage response (DDR). Although the role for PRP19 in splicing is well characterized, its role in the DDR remains elusive. Through a proteomic screen for proteins that interact with RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (RPA-ssDNA), we identified PRP19 as a sensor of DNA damage. PRP19 directly(More)
Aberrant MET expression and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signaling are implicated in promoting resistance to targeted agents; however, the induced MET activation by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors mediating resistance to targeted therapy remains elusive. In this study, we identified that cetuximab-induced MET activation contributed to(More)
Claspin is a key mediator of the ATR-Chk1 checkpoint pathway. In response to DNA damage, Claspin interacts with Rad17 and Chk1 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, enabling ATR to phosphorylate Chk1 efficiently. Claspin also interacts with Rad9, but how they interact and whether the interaction is functional remains unknown. Unexpectedly, our analysis of(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the change of WT1 gene expression during human leukemic K562 cell differentiation and apoptosis induced by bufalin. METHODS Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion, cell differentiation and apoptosis by nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction test, morphology and flow cytometry, expression of WT1 protein by Western blot(More)
The master checkpoint kinase ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) and its partner ATRIP (ATR-interacting protein) exist as a complex and function together in the DNA damage response. Unexpectedly, we found that the stability of the ATR-ATRIP complex is regulated by an unknown kinase independently of DNA damage. In search for this regulator of ATR-ATRIP, we found that(More)
The transport function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) requires its efficient localization to caveolae, a subset of lipid rafts, and disruption of caveolae suppresses P-gp transport function. However, the regulatory molecules involved in the translocation of P-gp into caveolae remain unknown. In the present study, we showed that c-Src dependent Caveolin-1(More)
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a well-known prerequisite for cancer cells to acquire the migratory and invasive capacity, and to subsequently metastasize. Bufalin is one of the major active components of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan Su, and accumulating evidence has shown its anticancer effect in multipe types of cancer. However,(More)
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET signaling is implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and possesses therapeutic value for various types of cancer. However, inhibition of MET alone has been demonstrated to have limited efficacy. The present study examined the combined inhibition of MET and SRC kinase activity in colon cancer cells.(More)