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Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) promote thymocyte maturation and are required for the early stages of thymocyte development and for positive selection. However, investigation of the mechanisms by which TECs perform these functions has been inhibited by the lack of genetic tools. Since the Foxn1 gene is expressed in all presumptive TECs from the early stages(More)
The postnatal thymus is the primary source of T cells in vertebrates, and many if not all stages of thymocyte development require interactions with thymic epithelial cells (TECs). The Foxn1 gene is a key regulator of TEC differentiation, and is required for multiple aspects of fetal TEC differentiation. Foxn1 is also expressed in the postnatal thymus, but(More)
Memory peripheral Th2 immune responses to infectious pathogens are not well studied due to the lack of suitable models and the difficulty of assessing Th2 cytokine expression at sites of inflammation. We have examined the localized immune response to a nematode parasite that encysts in the small intestine. An unexpected architecture was observed on day 4 of(More)
In these studies, we examined the effects of OX40 ligand (OX40L) deficiency on the development of Th2 cells during the Th2 immune response to the intestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Elevations in IL-4 production and total and Ag-specific serum IgE levels were partially inhibited during both the primary and memory immune responses to H.(More)
Foxn1Delta is a hypomorphic allele of the nude gene that causes arrested thymic epithelial cell differentiation and abnormal thymic architecture lacking cortical and medullary domains. T cells develop in the Foxn1Delta/Delta adult thymus to the double- and single-positive stages, but in the apparent absence of double-negative 3 (DN3) cells; however, DN3(More)
Foxn1Delta/Delta mutants have a block in thymic epithelial cell differentiation at an intermediate progenitor stage, resulting in reduced thymocyte cellularity and blocks at the double-negative and double-positive stages. Whereas naive single-positive thymocytes were reduced >500-fold in the adult Foxn1Delta/Delta thymus, peripheral T cell numbers were(More)
BACKGROUND Foxn1(Δ/Δ) mutant mice have a specific defect in thymic development, characterized by a block in TEC differentiation at an intermediate progenitor stage, and blocks in thymocyte development at both the DN1 and DP cell stages, resulting in the production of abnormally functioning T cells that develop from an atypical progenitor population. In the(More)
PURPOSE An interlaboratory comparison of radiation dosimetry was conducted to determine the accuracy of doses being used experimentally for animal exposures within a large multi-institutional research project. The background and approach to this effort are described and discussed in terms of basic findings, problems and solutions. METHODS Dosimetry tests(More)
The thoracic thymus is the primary vertebrate organ for T-cell generation. Accessory cervical thymi have also been identified in humans and mice, and shown in mice to be independent functional organs that support T-cell development. However, their origin and functional significance remain unclear. Here we show that cervical thymi in mice have following two(More)
The impacting action of flood destroyed dramatically the buildings, which caused the vast people and economic losses. It is important to analyze and design the rural buildings to resist the flood. In this paper, considering basic characteristics of rural building structures, the three dimensional models of rural building were built, with the help of windows(More)