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In countries where hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic, a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occur in HBV carriers and the prolonged replication and expression of HBV proteins in the liver is considered an important risk factor for progression to malignancy. However, the mechanism of pathogenesis of HBV-associated carcinoma remains elusive. In(More)
Antibodies developed during HIV-1 infection lose efficacy as the viral spike mutates. We postulated that anti-HIV-1 antibodies primarily bind monovalently because HIV's low spike density impedes bivalent binding through inter-spike crosslinking, and the spike structure prohibits bivalent binding through intra-spike crosslinking. Monovalent binding reduces(More)
BACKGROUND Factors influencing recurrence of ileocecal Crohn's disease (CD) after surgical resection may differ between adolescents and adults. METHODS CD patients who underwent ileocecectomy were retrospectively divided into pediatric onset (age at diagnosis ≤ 16 years, n = 34) and adult onset (>16, n = 108) patients to evaluate differences in risks of(More)
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