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Gram-negative bacteria commonly interact with animal and plant hosts using type III secretion systems (TTSSs) for translocation of proteins into eukaryotic cells during infection. 10 of the 25 TTSS-encoding genes are homologous to components of the bacterial flagellar basal body, which the TTSS needle complex morphologically resembles. This indicates a(More)
The bacterial RecA protein has been the dominant model system for understanding homologous genetic recombination. Although a crystal structure of RecA was solved ten years ago, we still do not have a detailed understanding of how the helical filament formed by RecA on DNA catalyzes the recognition of homology and the exchange of strands between two DNA(More)
Germ-line mutations in BRCA2 account for approximately half the cases of autosomal dominant familial breast cancers. BRCA2 has been shown to interact directly with RAD51, an essential component of the cellular machinery for homologous recombination and the maintenance of genome stability. Interactions between BRCA2 and RAD51 take place by means of the(More)
The crystal structure of the E. coli RecA protein was solved more than 10 years ago, but it has provided limited insight into the mechanism of homologous genetic recombination. Using electron microscopy, we have reconstructed five different states of RecA-DNA filaments. The C-terminal lobe of the RecA protein is modulated by the state of the distantly bound(More)
Three-dimensional reconstruction from electron microscopic (EM) images of isolated macromolecular complexes is being employed by many laboratories. This approach is extremely powerful and continues to improve in resolution. In the absence of stereochemical constraints that can be used to assess the quality of a reconstruction, as exist in X-ray(More)
Genetic evidence suggests that the SPP1-encoded gene 35 product (G35P) is essential for phage DNA replication. Purified G35P binds single-strand DNA (ssDNA) and double-strand (dsDNA) and specifically interacts with SPP1-encoded replicative DNA helicase G40P and SSB protein G36P. G35P promotes joint molecule formation between a circular ssDNA and a(More)
The RecA proteins of Escherichia coli (Ec) and Deinococcus radiodurans (Dr) both promote a DNA strand exchange reaction involving two duplex DNAs. The four-strand exchange reaction promoted by the DrRecA protein is similar to that promoted by EcRecA, except that key parts of the reaction are inhibited by Ec single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB). In the(More)
DnaB is the primary replicative helicase in Escherichia coli and the hexameric DnaB ring has previously been shown to exist in two states in the presence of nucleotides. In one, all subunits are equivalent, while in the other, there are two different subunit conformations resulting in a trimer of dimers. Under all conditions that we have used for electron(More)
A method based on DNA single-strand conformation polymorphism is demonstrated for effective genotyping of CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutants in rice. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) has been widely adopted for genome editing in many organisms. A large proportion of mutations generated by CRISPR/Cas9 are(More)