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Flowering plants commonly separate male and female function in time, but rarely are the two stages synchronized within and among individuals. One such temporal mating system is duodichogamy in which each plant produces two batches of male flowers that are temporally separated by a batch of female flowers, with within-individual synchrony and(More)
BACKGROUND Many insects feed on pollen surface lipids and contents accessible through the germination pores. Pollen walls, however, are not broken down because they consist of sporopollenin and are highly resistant to physical and enzymatic damage. Here we report that certain Microlepidoptera chemically dissolve pollen grains with exudates from their(More)
Cynomoriaceae, one of the last unplaced families of flowering plants, comprise one or two species or subspecies of root parasites that occur from the Mediterranean to the Gobi Desert. Using Illumina sequencing, we assembled the mitochondrial and plastid genomes as well as some nuclear genes of a Cynomorium specimen from Italy. Selected genes were also(More)
Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for Illicium verum, a member of the basal angiosperms. The observed number of alleles per locus ranged from two to nine. The observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.10 to 1.00 and 0.097 to 0.85, respectively. Twelve loci were screened in cross-amplification tests for three(More)
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