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The present study investigated whether the human brain is sensitive to valence differences in emotionally negative stimuli by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) for extremely negative (EN), moderately negative (MN), and neutral pictures while subjects perform a standard/deviant categorization task, irrespective of the emotional valence of the(More)
The feedback-related negativity (FRN) in brain potentials is typically observed for the outcome evaluation concerning one's performance or monetary reward. Using a task in which the participant guesses whether the first stimulus (S1) would have the same color as the subsequently presented second stimulus (S2), this study demonstrates that the FRN to S2,(More)
Previous studies have revealed that personal responsibility has an influence on outcome evaluation, although the way this influence works is still unclear. This study imitated the phenomenon of responsibility diffusion in a laboratory to examine the influence of the effect of responsibility diffusion on the processing of outcome evaluation using the(More)
The pre-attentive processing of Cantonese tones was studied with an auditory passive oddball paradigm. Event-related potentials to standard and deviant auditory stimuli were recorded as participants watched a silent movie attentively. The standards and deviants differed in either pitch level or pitch contour. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a were elicited(More)
Love of money (LOM) is concerned with the attitude toward money, which can be measured by the LOM scale through affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Research has observed that monetary attitude was tightly related to reward processing and could affect economic behavior. This study examined how monetary attitude modulated risky behavior and the(More)
Feedback-related negativity (FRN) is sensitive to both monetary loss and evaluation of the correctness of a response. This study used a gambling task that required participants to choose between two cards that were unpredictably associated with monetary gains or losses. Feedback stimuli then indicated gain or loss, and the correctness of the participant's(More)
Excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts within inflamed joints is the most specific hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis. A. flaccida has long been used for the treatment of arthritis in folk medicine of China; however, the active ingredients responsible for the anti-arthritis effects of A. flaccida are still elusive. In this study, W3, a saponin isolated from(More)
Osteoclasts, bone-specialized multinucleated cells, are responsible for bone destructive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Natural plant-derived products have received substantial attention given their potential therapeutic and preventive activities against bone destructive diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of(More)
Using the event-related optical signal (EROS) technique, this study investigated the dynamics of semantic brain activation during sentence comprehension. Participants read sentences constituent-by-constituent and made a semantic judgment at the end of each sentence. The EROSs were recorded simultaneously with ERPs and time-locked to expected or unexpected(More)