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Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a highly conserved water channel protein. In rats, AQP4 is expressed in astrocyte foot processes and is important in brain water homeostasis. AQP4 expression has not been investigated in non-neoplastic human brain or oedematous brain tumours, where water homeostasis is disrupted. Therefore, immunohistochemistry was used to study AQP4(More)
Aquaporin 1 is a water channel protein. There was little aquaporin 1 immunoreactivity in normal brain parenchyma. In astrocytomas, aquaporin 1 was expressed in microvessel endothelia and neoplastic astrocytes. In metastatic carcinomas, aquaporin 1 was present in microvessel endothelia and reactive astrocytes. Aquaporin 1 may participate in the formation of(More)
Despite their diverse histological types, most brain tumours cause brain oedema, which is a significant cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Brain tumour oedema occurs when plasma-like fluid enters the brain extracellular space through impaired capillary endothelial tight junctions in tumours. Under-expression of the tight junction proteins occludin,(More)
The tight junction protein occludin 'glues' normal, adjacent brain microvessel endothelial cells together. Malignant brain tumours cause cerebral oedema because they have leaky endothelial tight junctions, which allow plasma fluid to enter the brain from the microvessel lumen. In order to identify molecular abnormalities in tumour endothelial tight(More)
Specimens of normal human brain, contused brain, brain with bacterial meningitis, and brain tumours were immunolabelled for aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and Kir4.1. In normal brain tissue, AQP4 and Kir4.1 were detected around the microvessels. In pathological brain tissue, AQP4 was upregulated in astrocytes in oedematous regions and Kir4.1 was upregulated in(More)
Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the energy expenditure in healthy women before training and after training during the walking and running. Materials and Methods: Forty healthy women were taken as the subjects and energy expenditure was calculated before and after training during walking and running. In this study a 1600 metres (1 mile) track(More)
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