Shiv B. Tiwari

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Auxin response factors (ARFs) are transcription factors that bind to TGTCTC auxin response elements in promoters of early auxin response genes. ARFs have a conserved N-terminal DNA binding domain (DBD) and in most cases a conserved C-terminal dimerization domain (CTD). The ARF CTD is related in amino acid sequence to motifs III and IV found in Aux/IAA(More)
Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins that repress expression of primary/early auxin response genes in protoplast transfection assays. Repression is thought to result from Aux/IAA proteins dimerizing with auxin response factor (ARF) transcriptional activators that reside on auxin-responsive promoter elements, referred to as AuxREs. Most Aux/IAA(More)
Transcription factors of the auxin response factor (ARF) family have been implicated in auxin-dependent gene regulation, but little is known about the functions of individual ARFs in plants. Here, interaction assays, expression studies and combinations of multiple loss- and gain-of-function mutants were used to assess the roles of two ARFs, NONPHOTOTROPIC(More)
CONSTANS is an evolutionarily-conserved central component of the genetic pathway that controls the onset of flowering in response to daylength. However, the specific biochemical mechanism by which the CONSTANS protein regulates the expression of its target genes remains largely unknown. *By using a combination of cell-based expression analysis and in vitro(More)
Aux/IAA genes are early auxin response genes that encode short-lived nuclear proteins with four conserved domains, referred to as I, II, III, and IV. Arabidopsis Aux/IAA proteins repressed transcription on auxin-responsive reporter genes in protoplast transfection assays. Mutations in domain II resulted in increased repression, whereas mutations in domains(More)
Auxin response factors (ARFs) bind auxin response promoter elements and mediate transcriptional responses to auxin. Five of the 22 ARF genes in Arabidopsis thaliana encode ARFs with glutamine-rich middle domains. Four of these can activate transcription and have been ascribed developmental functions. We show that ARF19, the fifth Q-rich ARF, also activates(More)
Auxin is a key plant hormone that regulates plant development, apical dominance, and growth-related tropisms, such as phototropism and gravitropism. In this study, we report a new Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor, MYB77, that is involved in auxin response. In MYB77 knockout plants, we found that auxin-responsive gene expression was greatly(More)
Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins function as repressors of auxin response gene expression when auxin concentrations in a cell are low. At elevated auxin concentrations, these repressors are destroyed via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, resulting in derepression/activation of auxin response genes. Most Aux/IAA repressors contain four conserved(More)
An immuno-homologue of maize Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase with a molecular mass of 72 kDa was identified in pea. The pea kinase (PsCCaMK) was upregulated in roots in response to low temperature and increased salinity. Exogenous Ca2+ application increased the kinase level and the response was faster than that obtained following stress(More)
AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7 (ARF7) is one of five ARF transcriptional activators in Arabidopsis thaliana that is proposed to regulate auxin-responsive expression of genes containing TGTCTC auxin response elements in their promoters. An Arabidopsis mutant (nonphototropic hypocotyl4-1 [nph4-1]) that is a null for ARF7 showed strongly reduced expression of(More)