Shirley Ann Hartlage

Learn More
Automatic processes require few attentional resources, but effortful processes use attentional capacity. Research on cognitive processing by depressed individuals is reviewed and the following is concluded: (a) Depression interferes with effortful processing. The degree of interference is determined by the degree of effortfulness of the task, the severity(More)
In this article, we clarify, expand and revise the basic postulates of the hopelessness theory of depression (Abramson, Alloy & Metalsky, 1988a; Abramson, Metalsky & Alloy, 1987, 1988b; previously referred to as the reformulated helplessness theory of depression: Abramson, Seligman & Teasdale, 1978) and place the theory more explicitly in the context of(More)
BACKGROUND Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) was included as a provisional diagnostic category in the appendices of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-III-R (then called late luteal phase dysphoric disorder) and remained as an appendix in DSM-IV. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of PMDD using all four DSM-IV research(More)
The DSM-IV estimate that 3-5% of women have premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is based on studies that: used non-representative samples, did not consider all research criteria, or were retrospective. In the present study, prospective data from a multiethnic sample of women were analyzed to develop an effective method of considering all DSM-IV research(More)
CONTEXT There is substantial information that premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a clinically significant disorder with biological underpinnings that differ from other psychiatric disorders. However, data regarding the symptoms noted in DSM-IV and timing of their expression in the menstrual cycle have had little empirical support. OBJECTIVE To(More)
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder was included in an appendix of DSM-III-R (revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) and DSM-IV to facilitate systematic research. Items contained in its set of research criteria were considered tentative. Only one previous study of premenstrual symptoms specifically addressed symptoms(More)
Explored schematic processing as a mechanism for predicting (a) when depressed Ss would be negative relative to nondepressed Ss and (b) when depressed and nondepressed Ss would show biased or unbiased (i.e., "realistic") processing. Depressed and nondepressed Ss performed multiple trials of a task under conditions in which the two groups held either(More)
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, which affects 2%–5% of premenopausal women, was included in Appendix B of DSMIV, "Criterion Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study." Since then, aided by the inclusion of specific and rigorous criteria in DSM-IV, there has been an explosion of research on the epidemiology, phenomenology, pathogenesis, and treatment of the(More)
Investigators examined whether premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) poses a risk for major depressive disorder (MDD). In an initial study, women rated premenstrual symptoms and functional impairment daily for two menstrual cycles. A semistructured diagnostic interview was given to obtain psychiatric histories and differentiate PMDD from premenstrual(More)
This study describes the experience of menstruation among normal women, establishing a baseline for comparison with women reporting symptoms of a menstrual disorder. A community-based sample of 900 women kept a daily log of 50 physical, social, and psychological symptoms for a period of time that included two menstrual cycles. Twenty-five items were derived(More)