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This paper describes the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study, conducted from September 1999 to March 2000. The purpose of the study was to assess dietary measurement error using two self-reported dietary instruments-the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the 24-hour dietary recall (24HR)-and unbiased biomarkers of energy and protein(More)
Food samples (n 114) were prepared from vegetables commonly eaten in Europe. The glycosidic forms of the phyto-oestrogens daidzein and genistein were extracted from the dried foods into aqueous methanol. The isoflavones were quantified by GC-MS after hydrolytic removal of any conjugated carbohydrate. Completeness of extraction and any procedural losses of(More)
INTRODUCTION Isoflavones are hypothesized to protect against breast cancer, but it is not clear whether they act as oestrogens or anti-oestrogens in breast tissue. Our aim was to determine the effects of taking a red clover-derived isoflavone supplement daily for 1 year on mammographic breast density. Effects on oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone(More)
BACKGROUND In the UK EPIC validation studies, the accuracy of several methods was assessed by comparison with to-day weighed records and the biomarkers, 24-hour urine nitrogen (N) and potassium (K), plasma carotenoids and plasma vitamin C. METHODS Comparisons between methods were made on 156 women, studied over 1 year at 3-monthly intervals at home. On(More)
Dietary phytoestrogens such as the isoflavones daidzein and genistein are thought to protect against chronic diseases that are common in Western societies, such as cancer, osteoporosis, and ischemic heart disease. In addition, there are concerns regarding the deleterious effects of hormone-like compounds, especially with respect to the development of(More)
BACKGROUND The validity of dietary assessment methods should be established before diet-disease associations are reported. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to validate a 7-d food diary and a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against independent biomarkers of intake in urine (nitrogen, potassium, and sodium) and blood (plasma ascorbic acid). DESIGN A total(More)
High red meat diets have been linked with risk of sporadic colorectal cancer; but their effects on mutations which occur in this cancer are unknown. G-->A transitions in K-ras occur in colorectal cancer and are characteristic of the effects of alkylating agents such as N-nitroso compounds (NOC). We studied th effect of red meat consumption on faecal NOC(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe methods and dietary habits of a large population cohort. DESIGN Prospective assessment of diet using diet diaries and food-frequency questionnaires, and biomarkers of diet in 24-h urine collections and blood samples. SETTING Free living individuals aged 45 to 75 years living in Norfolk, UK. SUBJECTS Food and nutrient intake from(More)
Underreporting of energy consumption by self-report is well-recognized, but previous studies using recovery biomarkers have not been sufficiently large to establish whether participant characteristics predict misreporting. In 2004-2005, 544 participants in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial completed a doubly labeled water protocol(More)
Results from analysis of 24 h urine collections, verified for completeness with para-amino benzoic acid, and blood samples collected over 1 year were compared with 16 d weighed records of all food consumed collected over the year, and with results from 24 h recalls, food-frequency questionnaires and estimated food records in 160 women. Using the weighed(More)