Shira Kramer

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BACKGROUND Although case-control studies conducted to date have largely affirmed the relationship between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), occupational cohort studies of PCB-exposed workers have been generally interpreted as negative, thereby raising doubts about a potential causal association. A common theme of immune(More)
We compared 121 replicate rodent carcinogenicity assays from the two parts (National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program and literature) of the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) to estimate the reliability of these experiments. We estimated a concordance of 57% between the overall rodent carcinogenicity classifications from both sources. This(More)
Every technique for toxicity prediction and for the detection of structure-activity relationships relies on the accurate estimation and representation of chemical and toxicologic properties. In this paper we discuss the potential sources of errors associated with the identification of compounds, the representation of their structures, and the calculation of(More)
This review integrates historical developments and key events in bringing ethics into epidemiology in general and into environmental epidemiology in particular. The goal is to provide context for and discern among the various approaches and motivations that drive the need for ethical conduct in support of the public interest. The need for ethics guidelines(More)
Knowledge discovery and data mining tools are gaining increasing importance for the analysis of toxicological databases. This paper gives a survey of algorithms, capable to derive interpretable models from toxicological data, and presents the most important application areas. The majority of techniques in this area were derived from symbolic machine(More)
A 299 Environmental epidemiology, a well-established sub specialty of epidemiology, is of vital importance in the identification and prevention of environmentally linked morbidity and premature mortality. Perhaps more than most other applied sciences, the discipline of environmental epidemiology faces significant ethical challenges because of the(More)
While data integration for data analysis has been investigated extensively in biological applications, it has not yet been so much the focus in computational chemistry and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) research. With the availability and growing number of chemical databases on the web, such data integration efforts become an intriguing(More)
An on-line interactive verification and entry system (OLIVES) has been developed for conducting telephone interviews in large-scale epidemiological studies. Responses are automatically coded into a computer legible form suitable for analysis. Use of a question stack to control question flow allows on-line response modification, restart from any termination(More)
We present a new approach to the induction of SARs based on the generation of structural fragments and support vector machines (SVMs). It is tailored for bio-chemical databases, where the examples are two-dimensional descriptions of chemical compounds. The fragment generator finds all fragments (i.e. linearly connected atoms) that satisfy user-specified(More)
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