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Large-scale surveys of single-cell gene expression have the potential to reveal rare cell populations and lineage relationships but require efficient methods for cell capture and mRNA sequencing. Although cellular barcoding strategies allow parallel sequencing of single cells at ultra-low depths, the limitations of shallow sequencing have not been(More)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, double membrane vesicles derived from leukocytes, platelets, and cells of other tissues under physiological or pathological conditions. Generation of EVs in stored blood is thought to be associated with adverse effects and potentially immunosuppression in blood transfusion recipients. We measured the quantity and(More)
BACKGROUND West Nile virus (WNV) infection is asymptomatic in most individuals, with a minority developing symptoms ranging from WNV fever to serious neuroinvasive disease. This study investigated the impact of host HLA on the outcome of WNV disease. METHODS A cohort of 210 non-Hispanic mostly white WNV(+) subjects from Canada and the U.S. were typed for(More)
Although human exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation can occur through a variety of sources, including natural, medical, occupational and accidental, the true risks of low-dose ionizing radiation are still poorly understood in humans. Here, the global transcriptional responses of human skin after ex vivo exposure to low (0.05 Gy) and high (5 Gy) doses of(More)
OBJECTIVE HIV causes inflammation that can be at least partially corrected by HAART. To determine the qualitative and quantitative nature of cytokine perturbation, we compared cytokine patterns in three HIV clinical groups, including HAART responders (HAART), untreated HIV noncontrollers, and HIV-uninfected (NEG). METHODS Multiplex assays were used to(More)
More than a decade after West Nile virus (WNV) entered North America, and despite a significant increase in reported cases during the 2012 and 2013 seasons, no treatment or vaccine for humans is available. Although antiviral T cells contribute to the control of WNV, little is known about their regulation during acute infection. We analyzed the expression of(More)
We discuss a multiple genome rearrangement problem by signed reversals: Given a collection of genomes, we generate them in the minimum number of signed reversals. It is NP-hard and equivalent to finding an optimal Steiner tree to connect the genomes by reversal paths. We design two algorithms to find the optimal Steiner nodes of the problem:(More)
In this paper, we discuss a multiple genome rearrangement problem: Given a collection of genomes represented by permutations, we generate the collection from some fixed genome, e.g., the identity permutation, in a minimum number of signed reversals. It is NP-hard, so efficient heuristics is important for finding its optimal solution. We at first discuss how(More)
This study aimed at characterizing the genomic response to low versus moderate doses of ionizing radiation (LDIR versus MDIR) in a three-dimensional (3D) skin model, which exhibits a closer tissue complexity to human skin than monolayer cell cultures. EpiDermFT skin plugs were exposed to 0, 0.1 and 1 Gy doses of X-rays and harvested at 5 min, 3, 8 and 24 h(More)
Let be an alphabet and n denote the collection of all sequences of length n over. For any s1 = a1a2 ajaj+1 an, s2 = b1b2 bj bj+1 bn 2 n ; a recombination of s1 and s2 at position j is deened as an operation that crosses s1 and s2 at position j and generates t1 = a1a2 ajbj+1 bn and t2 = b1b2 bjaj+1 an: Denote A and S two collections of sequences. In this(More)