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Ob/ob mice, a model for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), develop intestinal bacterial overgrowth and overexpress tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In animal models for alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), decontaminating the intestine or inhibiting TNF-alpha improves AFLD. Because AFLD and NAFLD may have a similar pathogenesis, treatment(More)
Recovery from liver damage might be enhanced by encouraging repopulation of the liver by endogenous hepatic progenitor cells. Oval cells are resident hepatic stem cells that promote liver regeneration and repair. Little is known about the mediators that regulate the accumulation of these cells in the liver. Parasympathetic nervous system inhibition reduces(More)
BACKGROUND Doses of ethanol (EtOH) that are not overtly cytotoxic inhibit mitogen-induced hepatocyte proliferation and delay liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). The mechanisms for this are poorly understood. This study evaluates the hypothesis that EtOH inhibits hepatocyte proliferation after PH by inducing redox-sensitive factors, such(More)
Conventional diffusion imaging techniques are not sufficiently accurate for evaluating glioma grade and cellular proliferation, which are critical for guiding glioma treatment. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), an advanced non-Gaussian diffusion imaging technique, has shown potential in grading glioma; however, its applications in this tumor have not been(More)
The mechanisms initiating and perpetuating the fibrogenic response in the injured liver are not well understood. Hepatic stellate cells are activated by liver injury to become proliferative and fibrogenic myofibroblasts. Emerging evidence suggests that the sympathetic nervous system may play a role in the development of cirrhosis. It is not known, however,(More)
Mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is increased in mice with fatty livers induced by genetic obesity, chronic consumption of ethanol, or methionine/choline-deficient diets. Both nuclear and mitochondrial (mt) DNA are targets for ROS-induced damage and accumulate hydroxylated bases, such as 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG) and base(More)
Although ethanol is known to sensitize hepatocytes to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) lethality, the mechanisms involved remain controversial. Recently, others have shown that adding TNFalpha to cultures of ethanol-pretreated hepatocytes provokes the mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release, procaspase 3 activation, and apoptosis. Although(More)
As a progressive chronic disease, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision impairment worldwide. Experimental and clinical evidence has demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a vital role in the formation of choroidal neovascularization. Intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents have(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS ob/ob mice are used to study the mechanisms that regulate the progression from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The livers of ob/ob mice are depleted of CD4-positive natural killer cells, components of the innate immune system that induce anti-inflammatory cytokines. Although this may explain the sensitivity of fatty livers to(More)
The mechanisms that initiate and perpetuate the fibrogenic response, during liver injury, are unclear. Animal studies, however, strongly support a role for the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in wound healing. Therefore, the ANS may also mediate the development of cirrhosis. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the liver's major matrix-producing cells, are(More)