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In screening the culture broth of marine bacteria collected at Yap (Micronesia), Palau (Belau), and Okinawa (the southwest islands of Japan) for antimicroalgal activity, 37 out of 2,594 bacterial isolates tested were found to produce anticyanobacterial substances against Oscillatoria amphibia NIES-361. One strain, C-979, identified as a Vibrio sp., was(More)
The virucidal effects of two types of electrolyzed water, acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), on avian influenza viruses were studied. Virus titers of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus and the low-pathogenic H9N2 virus irreversibly decreased by >5-log at 1 min after the viruses were mixed with NEW containing ≥43 ppm free(More)
An H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was isolated from conjunctiva of a whooper swan with neurological signs, which was captured during the latest H5N1 HPAI outbreak in Japan. The conjunctival swab contained a larger amount of the virus in comparison with the tracheal swab. This is the first report on H5N1 virus isolation from the conjunctiva of(More)
H4N8 subtype avian influenza viruses were isolated from shorebirds in eastern Hokkaido. All the isolates shared >99.7% nucleotide homology, and all the viral genes except for PB1 were highly related to those of A/red-necked stint/Australia/1/04. Thus, the isolates were regarded as PB1 reassortants. The most similar PB1 gene was identified in A/mallard/New(More)
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