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The corticospinal motor evoked potential (MEP) response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex was investigated in comparison with the direct (D) response to electrical stimulation of the exposed motor cortex from the spinal epidural space in 7 neurologically normal patients during brain tumor surgery. The D response during operation was(More)
Anesthetic drugs are known to interact with GABA A receptors, both to potentiate the effects of low concentrations of GABA and to directly gate open the ion channel in the absence of GABA; however, the site(s) involved in direct gating by these drugs is not known. We have studied the ability of alphaxalone (an anesthetic steroid) and pentobarbital (an(More)
GABA, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult CNS, is excitatory at early developmental stages as a result of the elevated intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i). This functional switch is primarily attributable to the K+-Cl- co-transporter KCC2, the expression of which is developmentally regulated in neurons. Previously, we reported that KCC2(More)
Na+, K+-ATPase 2 subunit gene (Atp1a2) knock-out homozygous mice (Atp1a2-/-) died immediately after birth resulting from lack of breathing. The respiratory-related neuron activity in Atp1a2-/- was investigated using a brainstem-spinal cord en bloc preparation. The respiratory motoneuron activity recorded from the fourth cervical ventral root (C4) was(More)
1. The aim of our study is to clarify the relationship between expression pattern of P2X receptors and the cell type of male adult rat (Wistar) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We identified the nociceptive cells of acutely dissociated DRG neurons from adult rats type using capsaicin sensitivity. 2. Two types of ATP-activated currents, one with fast, the(More)
Fast inhibitory synaptic transmission is primarily mediated by synaptically released gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting on postsynaptic GABA(A) receptors. GABA acting on GABA(A) receptors produces not only phasic but also tonic inhibitions by persistent activation of extrasynaptic receptors. However, the mechanistic characteristics of tonic inhibition in(More)
Mutations of genes encoding alpha4, beta2, or alpha2 subunits (CHRNA4, CHRNB2, or CHRNA2, respectively) of nAChR [neuronal nicotinic ACh (acetylcholine) receptor] cause nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) in human. NFLE-related seizures are seen exclusively during sleep and are characterized by three distinct seizure phenotypes: "paroxysmal arousals,"(More)
1. The excitatory response of extracellularly applied ATP was investigated in freshly dissociated rat nucleus tractus solitarii neurons under whole-cell configuration using the "concentration-clamp" technique. 2. At a holding potential of -70 mV, 100 microM ATP evoked inward current that was slowly desensitized in the continuous presence of ATP. The(More)
1. The proton-gated current was investigated in freshly dissociated ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) neurones from 4-week-old Wistar rats, under whole-cell configuration by the use of the 'concentration-clamp' technique which combines intracellular perfusion with the rapid exchange of external solution within 1-2 ms under a single-electrode voltage-clamp(More)
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter within the adult central nervous system, is also known to be excitatory at early developmental stages due to the elevated intracellular Cl(-) concentration. This functional change is primarily attributable to a K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter, KCC2, the expression of which is developmentally regulated in(More)