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Brain subjected to acute ischemic attack caused by an arterial blockage needs immediate arterial recanalization. However, restoration of cerebral blood flow can cause tissue injury, which is termed reperfusion injury. It is important to inhibit reperfusion injury to achieve greater brain protection. Because oxidative stress has been shown to activate(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The seleno-organic compound ebselen has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Although ebselen has been shown to protect the brain against stroke, it is unclear how ebselen provides neuroprotection. In the present study the authors examined whether ebselen inhibits neuronal apoptosis resulting from transient focal(More)
The distribution and cell source of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) mRNA induced by transient and permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were investigated by a double in situ hybridization technique. The distribution and time course of the induction of MIP-1alpha mRNA were similar in the two MCAO models. MIP-1alpha mRNA was(More)
Localization of the mRNAs for fractalkine, a CX3C chemokine, and for its receptor CX3CR1 was investigated in the rat brain. In situ hybridization study revealed that fractalkine mRNA was dominantly expressed in neuronal cells particularly in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens. In vitro study using(More)
The authors previously reported that mRNA for macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1 alpha), a member of the CC chemokines, was expressed in glial cells after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. However, the function of chemokines in the ischemic brain remains unclear. Recently, viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II (vMIP-II), a chemokine analogue(More)
The in situ hybridization technique was used to examine the expression of type 2 interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R2) mRNA in the rat brain following the systemic injection of kainic acid at a convulsive dose. The expression of IL-1R2 mRNA was not detected in any brain regions of the saline-injected control rats. 8 h after the systemic injection of kainic acid,(More)
The expression of the mRNAs for stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha and -1beta (SDF-1alpha and -1beta) and their receptor CXCR4 in cultured rat glial and neuronal cells was examined. SDF-1alpha mRNA was expressed intensely in astrocytes and weakly in neurons, but not in microglia. SDF-1beta mRNA was expressed weakly in these three types of cells. The(More)
Excessively released glutamate is neurotoxic. Glutamate transporters maintain the extracellular level of glutamate by uptake into glia or neurons. We examined the role of GLT-1, a glial glutamate transporter, in brain damage resulting from transient focal ischemia in mice. Heterozygous gene deletion of GLT-1 significantly augmented brain swelling resulting(More)
Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1) is a member of the chemokine superfamily. The effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection of CINC-1 on the mechanical nociceptive threshold in the rat was examined using the paw-pressure test. An i.c.v. injection of CINC-1 at doses of 1 and 10 pg/rat tended to decrease the nociceptive threshold(More)
To elucidate the sites of and mechanisms of analgesic effect of centrally injected calcitonin, we examined expression of calcitonin receptor mRNA in the mouse brain by in situ hybridization techniques. Calcitonin receptor mRNA was expressed in various brain regions, including the preoptic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area,(More)