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The protein kinase MAP kinase, also called MAP2 kinase, is a serine/threonine kinase whose activation and phosphorylation are induced by a variety of mitogens, and which is thought to have a critical role in a network of protein kinases in mitogenic signal transduction. A burst in kinase activation and protein phosphorylation may also be important in(More)
By the introduction of a public, mandatory program of Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) on April 1, 2000, Japan has moved towards a system of social care for the frail and elderly. The program covers care that is both home-based and institutional. Fifty percent of the insurance is financed from the general tax and the other fifty percent from the premiums of(More)
BACKGROUND Principles and methods for the allocation of healthcare resources among healthcare providers have long been health policy research issues in many countries. Healthcare reforms including the development of a new case-mix system, Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC), and the introduction of a DPC-based payment system are currently underway in(More)
BACKGROUND We estimated the burden of cancer using mortality and years of life lost according to life tables in a cohort study in Japan. METHODS A cohort of 13,270 subjects established in the late 1980s in Japan was followed annually for the vital status of all subjects until 2003. For subjects who died, the underlying cause of death was ascertained from(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the clinical and procedural characteristics of emergency hospital admissions for drug poisoning and major diseases. DESIGN Retrospective observational study. SETTING Discharged patients from 855 acute care hospitals from 1 July to 31 December in 2008 in Japan. RESULTS There were a total of 1 157 893 emergency hospital admissions.(More)
OBJECTIVES This study aimed to describe the clinical and procedural characteristics of drug poisoning, to examine procedural differences between drug poisoning repeaters and non-repeaters, and to estimate the costs of drug poisoning. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of a nationally representative sample of 6585 inpatients with drug poisoning was(More)
Adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) is an adverse consequence of abdominal surgery. Although the Kampo medicine Dai-kenchu-to is widely used in Japan for treatment of postoperative ASBO, rigorous clinical studies for its use have not been performed. In the present retrospective observational study using the Japanese diagnosis procedure combination(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the effects of professional staffing on cancer surgical outcomes. The present study aimed to investigate the association between cancer surgical outcomes and physician/nurse staffing in relation to hospital volume. METHODS We analyzed 131,394 patients undergoing lung lobectomy, esophagectomy, gastrectomy, colorectal(More)
OBJECTIVE In-hospital mortality is an important performance measure for quality improvement, although it requires proper risk adjustment. We set out to develop in-hospital mortality prediction models for acute hospitalization using a nation-wide electronic administrative record system in Japan. METHODS Administrative records of 224,207 patients (patients(More)
BACKGROUND The epidemiology of intussusception, including its incidence, can vary between different countries. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of childhood intussusception in Japan using data from a nationwide inpatient database. METHODS We screened the database for eligible cases ≤ 18 years of age, who were coded with a discharge(More)