Learn More
Linkage of microtubules to special cortical regions is essential for cell polarization. CLIP-170 binds to the growing ends of microtubules and plays pivotal roles in orientation. We have found that IQGAP1, an effector of Rac1 and Cdc42, interacts with CLIP-170. In Vero fibroblasts, IQGAP1 localizes at the polarized leading edge. Expression of(More)
Spike timing-dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) plays an important role in neural development and information processing in the brain; however, the mechanism by which spike timing information is encoded into STDP remains unclear. Here, we show that a novel allosteric kinetics of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is required for STDP. We developed a detailed(More)
Although a number of neuromodulators influence the cerebellar circuitry, their functions remain largely unknown. By reviewing and combining results from data-driven and theory-driven studies, we attempt to provide an integrated systems view of cerebellar neuromodulation. First, we review the short- and long-term effects of neuromodulators on the cerebellar(More)
Cell polarity is a general cellular process that can be seen in various cell types such as migrating neutrophils and Dictyostelium cells. The Rho small GTP(guanosine 5'-tri phosphate)ases have been shown to regulate cell polarity; however, its mechanism of emergence has yet to be clarified. We first developed a reaction-diffusion model of the Rho GTPases,(More)
To elucidate the hidden dynamics of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling networks, we developed a simulation model of ERK signalling networks by constraining in silico dynamics based on in vivo dynamics in PC12 cells. We predicted and validated that transient ERK activation depends on rapid increases of epidermal growth factor and nerve(More)
Large Ca2+ signals essential for cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell synapses are known to be induced when PF activation precedes climbing fiber (CF) activation by 50-200 ms, consistent with cerebellar learning theories. However, large Ca2+ signals and/or LTD can also be induced by massive PF stimulation alone or by(More)
Mean firing rates (MFRs), with analogue values, have thus far been used as information carriers of neurons in most brain theories of learning. However, the neurons transmit the signal by spikes, which are discrete events. The climbing fibers (CFs), which are known to be essential for cerebellar motor learning, fire at the ultra-low firing rates (around 1(More)
Robust transmission of information despite the presence of variation is a fundamental problem in cellular functions. However, the capability and characteristics of information transmission in signaling pathways remain poorly understood. We describe robustness and compensation of information transmission of signaling pathways at the cell population level. We(More)
BACKGROUND Continuous NGF stimulation induces PC12 cell differentiation. However, why continuous NGF stimulation is required for differentiation is unclear. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of the timing-dependent requirement of NGF action for cell differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To address the timing-dependency of(More)
Transient responses of signaling molecules are seen in a wide variety of cellular processes that are mediated by distinct molecular mechanisms. Although transient responses might intuitively be thought to depend on the absolute concentration of growth factors or the intensity of stimulation, we here introduce that some transient responses are prompted by(More)