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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in continental Asia has not been well-studied. Here, we report mtDNA HV1 sequences for 84 Xi'an and 82 Changsha Han Chinese, 89 Honshu Japanese, and 35 Vietnamese. Comparison of these sequences with other Asian mtDNA sequences reveals high variability within populations, but extremely low differentiation among Asian(More)
IgA is a major component that prevents the penetration of pathogenic bacteria into mucosal surfaces. The IgA antibody is cleaved at the IgA hinge region with high specificity by IgA-specific proteases produced by several pathogenic bacteria. We conducted a genomic sequence analysis of the IgA genes of a wide spectrum of primates, including the first intron(More)
Eukaryote genomes are known to contain variable numbers of tandem repeats (Jeffreys et al. 1985; Nakamura et al. 1987). STRs (short tandem repeats), also called microsatellites, are a group of tandemly reiterated sequences, of which repeat units are from 1 to 5 nucleotide(s) in length. In humans they exhibit an extensive variation in length among(More)
We studied the phylogeny of the genus Oryza using chloroplast DNA sequences. To identify regions containing sufficient variation for elucidating the relationship of closely related species with fine resolution and high reliability, we first compared the complete chloroplast sequences of Oryza sativa japonica, O. sativa indica, and O. nivara, and identified(More)
The tandem repeat of a 28-base-pair (bp) sequence downstream of the human c-Ha-ras-1 oncogene was studied as a probe for DNA fingerprinting. Multiple hypervariable patterns were observed by Southern hybridization at low stringency. The patterns were specific to individuals, indicating the availability of the 28-bp repeat as a probe for DNA fingerprinting.(More)
The class III POU transcription factor genes play an important role in the nervous system. Comparison of their entire amino acid sequences disclosed a remarkable feature of particular mammalian class III POU genes. Alanine, glycine, and proline repeats were present in the mammalian Brain-1 gene, whereas most of these repeats were absent in the nonmammalian(More)
Immunoglobulin epsilon and alpha genes of chimpanzee and gorilla were isolated and their structures were compared with their human counterparts. Multiple deletions and duplications seem to have happened in both genes during hominoid evolution; the chimpanzee had deleted the entire Cε2 gene after its divergence. In addition, the length of the Cα1 hinge(More)
Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a subtype of the myotonic dystrophies, caused by expansion of a tetranucleotide CCTG repeat in intron 1 of the zinc finger protein 9 (ZNF9) gene. The expansions are extremely unstable and variable, ranging from 75-11,000 CCTG repeats. This unprecedented repeat size and somatic heterogeneity make molecular diagnosis of DM2(More)
We humans have many characteristics that are different from those of the great apes. These human-specific characters must have arisen through mutations accumulated in the genome of our direct ancestor after the divergence of the last common ancestor with chimpanzee. Gene trees of human and great apes are necessary for extracting these human-specific genetic(More)
We investigated the CAG repeat sequence of the spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) gene in various species of primates to reveal how human has acquired the repeat structure with interruptions. Our results demonstrate no repetitive structure in the region corresponding to the human CAG repeats in prosimians and New World monkeys like in rodents, perfect(More)