Shintaro Sato

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The innate immune system senses viral infection by recognizing a variety of viral components (including double-stranded (ds)RNA) and triggers antiviral responses. The cytoplasmic helicase proteins RIG-I (retinoic-acid-inducible protein I, also known as Ddx58) and MDA5 (melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5, also known as Ifih1 or Helicard) have been(More)
Stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers activation of a common MyD88-dependent signaling pathway as well as a MyD88-independent pathway that is unique to TLR3 and TLR4 signaling pathways leading to interferon (IFN)-beta production. Here we disrupted the gene encoding a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor, TRIF. TRIF-deficient mice(More)
Type I interferons are central mediators for antiviral responses. Using high-throughput functional screening of interferon inducers, we have identified here a molecule we call interferon-beta promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1). Overexpression of IPS-1 induced type I interferon and interferon-inducible genes through activation of IRF3, IRF7 and NF-kappaB(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in antiviral response by recognizing viral components. Recently, a RNA helicase, RIG-I, was also suggested to recognize viral double-stranded RNA. However, how these molecules contribute to viral recognition in vivo is poorly understood. We show by gene targeting that RIG-I is essential for induction of type(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the recognition of microbial pathogens. A subset of TLRs, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9, induces antiviral responses by producing interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha). Production of IFN-alpha is dependent on the Toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor MyD88. Here we show that MyD88 formed a complex with the(More)
The innate immune system recognizes nucleic acids during infection or tissue damage; however, the mechanisms of intracellular recognition of DNA have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that intracellular administration of double-stranded B-form DNA (B-DNA) triggered antiviral responses including production of type I interferons and chemokines(More)
Signal transduction through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) originates from their intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain, which binds to MyD88, a common adaptor protein containing a TIR domain. Although cytokine production is completely abolished in MyD88-deficient mice, some responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), including the induction of(More)
The imidazoquinoline compounds imiquimod and R-848 are low-molecular-weight immune response modifiers that can induce the synthesis of interferon-alpha and other cytokines in a variety of cell types. These compounds have potent anti-viral and anti-tumor properties; however, the mechanisms by which they exert their anti-viral activities remain unclear. Here(More)
Malaria parasites within red blood cells digest host hemoglobin into a hydrophobic heme polymer, known as hemozoin (HZ), which is subsequently released into the blood stream and then captured by and concentrated in the reticulo-endothelial system. Accumulating evidence suggests that HZ is immunologically active, but the molecular mechanism(s) through which(More)
The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family acts as pattern recognition receptors for pathogen-specific molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2 is essential for the signaling of a variety of PAMPs, including bacterial lipoprotein/lipopeptides, peptidoglycan, and GPI anchors. TLR6 associates with TLR2 and recognizes diacylated mycoplasmal lipopeptide along with TLR2. We(More)