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Hypophysitis is a chronic inflammation of the pituitary gland of unknown (primary forms) or recognizable (secondary forms) etiology, such as the use of ipilimumab in cancer immunotherapy. Ipilimumab, which blocks the T cell inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4), induces hypophysitis in about 4% of patients through unknown mechanisms.(More)
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is now considered the most prevalent autoimmune disease, as well as the most common endocrine disorder. It was initially described in 1912, but only rarely reported until the early 1950s. To celebrate this centennial, we reviewed the surgical pathology archives of the Johns Hopkins hospital for cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis,(More)
Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a serious demyelinating disease in the central nervous system usually caused by rapid correction of hyponatremia. In an animal model of ODS, we previously reported microglial accumulation expressing proinflammatory cytokines. Microglia and astrocytes secreting proinflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors are(More)
Tobacco smoking favorably influences the course of Hashimoto thyroiditis, possibly through the antiinflammatory proprieties of nicotine. In this study we tested anatabine, another tobacco alkaloid, in a model of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis was induced by different doses of thyroglobulin, to produce a disease of(More)
CONTEXT Isolated prolactin (PRL) deficiency is a rare entity of unknown etiology manifesting as failure of puerperal lactogenesis. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to determine the cause of isolated PRL deficiency in an affected woman. DESIGN AND SETTING We examined genetic and autoimmune causes of isolated PRL deficiency at academic medical centers.(More)
CONTEXT Pituitary antibodies have been measured mainly to identify patients whose disease is caused or sustained by pituitary-specific autoimmunity. Although reported in over 100 publications, they have yielded variable results and are thus considered of limited clinical utility. OBJECTIVES Our objectives were to analyze all publications reporting(More)
CONTEXT Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) can be caused by several diseases, but in about half of the patients the etiological diagnosis remains unknown. Lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis (LINH) is an increasingly recognized entity among cases of idiopathic CDI; however, the differential diagnosis from other pituitary diseases including tumors can be(More)
Isolated adrenocorticotropin deficiency (IAD) is characterized by low or absent adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production. IAD is presumed to be caused in part by an autoimmune mechanism, and several lines of evidence have suggested the presence of anti-pituitary antibodies in IAD. However, the exact autoantigens remain unknown. The present study was(More)
The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin plays an important role in modulating energy homeostasis through peripheral tissues and the central nervous system. Several studies have reported that adiponectin exists in cerebrospinal fluid and that adiponectin receptors are expressed in the hypothalamus, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which plays a(More)