Shinsaku Imashuku

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In HLH-94, the first prospective international treatment study for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), diagnosis was based on five criteria (fever, splenomegaly, bicytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia and/or hypofibrinogenemia, and hemophagocytosis). In HLH-2004 three additional criteria are introduced; low/absent NK-cell-activity, hyperferritinemia, and(More)
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a disorder of the mononuclear phagocyte system, can be classified into two distinct forms: primary HLH (FHL) and secondary HLH. To clarify the epidemiology and clinical outcome for each HLH subtype, we conducted a nationwide survey of HLH in Japan. Since 799 patients were diagnosed in 292 institutions of Japan(More)
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis represents a spectrum of pathogenetically different diseases in which a T-cell induced, uncontrolled activation of phagocytosing macrophages may lead to fever, organomegaly, and pancytopenia. The underlying immunologic disturbance can either be genetically transmitted, like in FHL, or acquired, as in IAHS or MAHS.(More)
Pathologists and pediatric hematologist/ oncologists of the World Health Organization's Committee on Histiocytic/Reticulum Cell Proliferations and the Reclassification Working Group of the Histiocyte Society present a classification of the histiocytic disorders that primarily affect children. Nosology, based on the lineage of lesional cells and biological(More)
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) comprises familial (primary) hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) and secondary HLH (SHLH), both clinically characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and cytopenia. FHL, an autosomal recessive disease invariably fatal when untreated, is associated with defective triggering of apoptosis and reduced cytotoxic(More)
PURPOSE We sought to identify the clinical variables most critical to successful treatment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). PATIENTS AND METHODS Among the factors tested were age at diagnosis (< 2 years or > or = 2 years), time from diagnosis to initiation of treatment with or without etoposide-containing(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the major triggering factor producing hemophagocytic syndrome or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). In this review, diagnostic problems, clinical and histopathological features, and treatment strategies of EBV-HLH have been described. In patients with EBV-HLH, the EBV-infected T cells or natural killer (NK) cells are(More)
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis represents a spectrum of pathogenetically different diseases including the rapidly fatal autosomal recessive disease of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL). The onset is usually during the first years of life with fever, cytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. Neurologic symptoms may supervene. Similar symptoms(More)
Hemophagocytic syndrome consists of primary and secondary HLH. Efficacy of therapeutic measures and prognosis depend on degree of hypercytokinemia-associated organ failure at disease onset and underlying disorders. The underlying diseases related to hemophagocytosis and informative markers useful for differential diagnoses to select the most effective(More)