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Activation of GSK-3beta is presumed to be involved in various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by memory disturbances during early stages of the disease. The normal function of GSK-3beta in adult brain is not well understood. Here, we analyzed the ability of heterozygote GSK-3beta knockout (GSK+/-) mice(More)
1. Unit spikes of burst neurons were extracellularly recorded in the pontomedullary reticular formation of the cat. These neurons were identified by their burst activity coincident with the quick inhibitory phase of the contralateral abducens nerve during vestibular nystagmus and their antidromic activation from the contralateral abducens nucleus. 2. When(More)
In alert cats, extracellular spikes of neurons in the medial pontine tegmentum were recorded simultaneously with whole nerve discharges of the abducens and medial rectus nerves during horizontal vestibular nystagmus. Nystagmus-related neurons were classified by their firing patterns in relation to the abrupt cessation of the slow phase nerve activity of(More)
The axonal projections of 62 posterior canal (PC)-activated excitatory and inhibitory secondary vestibular neurons were studied electrophysiologically in cats. PC-related neurons were identified by monosynaptic activation elicited by electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve and activation following nose-up rotation of the animal's head. Single(More)
(1) The blood-brain barrier (BBB) characteristics of cerebral endothelial cells are induced by organ-specific local signals. Brain endothelial cells lose their phenotype in cultures without cross-talk with neighboring cells. (2) In contrast to astrocytes, pericytes, another neighboring cell of endothelial cells in brain capillaries, are rarely used in BBB(More)
This study examines projection to the cerebellar flocculus of eye movement-related neurons in the median and paramedian part of the cat pontine tegmentum between the trochlear and the abducens nucleus. They were identified by rhythmic activity related to horizontal vestibular nystagmus induced by sinusoidal rotation. These neurons were classified into(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytic foot processes. Most research for the in vitro BBB is performed endothelial cells with or without astrocytes. Hypoxia damage to the BBB induces vasogenic brain edema. We have generated a new model of the BBB with brain endothelial cells and pericytes and have examined(More)
Brainstem pause neurons (PNs) exhibit a tonic discharge during the slow phase of horizontal vestibular nystagmus and pause prior to and during the quick phase in both directions. One type of pontomedullary burst neurons, burst inhibitory neurons (BINs), show a high frequency burst of spikes before and during the quick phase to the ipsilateral side and this(More)