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There have been significant advances in the understanding of the dioxygen-activation chemistry of mononuclear copper monooxygenases such as peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase and dopamine beta-monooxygenase (DbetaM). Recent structural and spectroscopic studies on a series of biomimetic model compounds have provided new and valuable insights into(More)
The molecular mechanism of the monooxygenase (phenolase) activity of type 3 copper proteins has been examined in detail both in the model systems and in the enzymatic systems. The reaction of a side-on peroxo dicopper(II) model compound ( A) and neutral phenols proceeds via a proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) mechanism to generate phenoxyl radical(More)
The pro form of melB tyrosinase from the melB gene of Aspergillus oryzae was over-produced from E. coli and formed a homodimer that exhibited the spectral features of met-tyrosinase. In the presence of NH(2)OH (reductant), the proenzyme bound dioxygen to give a stable (μ-η(2):η(2) -peroxo)dicopper(II) species (oxy form), thus indicating that the pro form(More)
Tyrosinase is a copper monooxygenase containing a coupled dinuclear copper active site (type-3 copper), which catalyzes oxygenation of phenols (phenolase activity) as well as dehydrogenation of catechols (catecholase activity) using O(2) as the oxidant. In this study, catalase activity (conversion of H(2)O(2) to (1/2)O(2) and H(2)O) and peroxygenase(More)
Tyrosinase, a dinuclear copper monooxygenase/oxidase, plays a crucial role in the melanin pigment biosynthesis. The structure and functions of tyrosinase have so far been studied extensively, but the post-translational maturation process from the pro-form to the active form has been less explored. In this study, we provide the crystal structures of(More)
Oxygenation of a series of p-substituted phenols to the corresponding catechols (phenolase activity) by the (mu-eta2:eta2-peroxo)dicopper(II) species of Octopus hemocyanin has been directly examined for the first time by using a UV-vis spectroscopic method in a 0.5 M borate buffer solution containing 8 M urea under anaerobic conditions. Preliminary kinetic(More)
Octopus vulgaris hemocyanin ( Ov-Hc) and one of its minimal functional units ( Ov-g) have been purified, and their spectroscopic features and monooxygenase (phenolase) activity have been examined in detail. The oxy forms of both Ov-Hc and Ov-g are stable in 0.5 M borate buffer (pH 9.0) even in the presence of a high concentration of urea at 25 degrees C;(More)
The pro form of recombinant tyrosinase from Aspergillus oryzae (melB) shows no catalytic activity, but acid treatment (around pH 3.5) of protyrosinase activates it to induce tyrosinase activity. Circular dichroism spectra, gel filtration analysis, and colorimetric assay have indicated that acid treatment around pH 3.5 induced the disruption of the(More)
The scavenging reaction of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH.) or galvinoxyl radical (GO.) by a vitamin E model, 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethylchroman-6-ol (1H), was significantly accelerated by the presence of Mg(ClO4)2 in de-aerated methanol (MeOH). Such an acceleration indicates that the radical-scavenging reaction of 1H in MeOH proceeds via an electron(More)
A very simple tyrosinase reaction system has been developed using borate anion as a trapping agent of catechols and hydroxylamine as an external reductant to evaluate the phenolase activity without the interference of catecholase activity. Reactivities of variously para-substituted phenols in this system were compared directly to those of the phenols in the(More)