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The natural anticoagulant-activated protein C may inhibit inflammation and fibrosis in the lung. Platelet-derived growth factor is involved in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. This study assessed the effect of activated protein C on platelet-derived growth factor expression in human cell lines and in an in vivo model of lung fibrosis. Activated protein C(More)
BACKGROUND Thrombin, the effector enzyme of the coagulation system, has been reported to promote inflammatory responses in nasal diseases through its protease-activated receptors (PARs). Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is characterized by increased deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, tissue remodeling, and formation of nasal polyps. The role of(More)
To examine the differential properties of mucous glycoproteins, we produced hyperplastic and metaplastic changes in goblet cells of rat nasal epithelium by intranasal instillation of ovalbumin (OVA) in OVA-sensitized rats, and by intranasal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) instillation. The epithelial mucosubstance was quantitatively examined by AB-PAS and lectin(More)
To examine the in vivo effects of macrolide antibiotics on mucus hypersecretion, we induced hypertrophic and metaplastic changes of goblet cells in rat nasal epithelium by intranasal instillation of ovalbumin (OVA) in OVA-sensitized rats and by intranasal LPS instillation. Oral administration of clarithromycin (CAM) (5-10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited OVA-(More)
OBJECTIVES The resolution of inflammation is an active process controlled by several anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution mediators. Lipoxin A4, an endogenous lipid mediator, is a potential pro-resolution mediator that could attenuate inflammation. This study was conducted to elucidate the role of lipoxin A4 in upper airway inflammation. METHODS Nasal(More)
BACKGROUND Heparin is one of the most important anticoagulant drugs. It has been known that heparin also possesses anti-inflammatory activities. Mucus hypersecretion is an important characteristic of airway inflammation. However, little is known about the regulatory effects of heparin on mucus hypersecretion in airway epithelial cells. To elucidate the(More)
BACKGROUND Recent experiments have revealed that valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has neuroregenerative effects in rodent models of spinal cord and optic nerve injury. VPA has a potential to provide a new therapeutic strategy for sensorineural olfactory dysfunction. To elucidate the effects of VPA on regeneration of olfactory sensory(More)
Thrombin has been detected and demonstrated to play a role in the airways of patients with bronchial asthma, but its role in the upper airways including during allergic rhinitis is unknown. This study was conducted to explore whether thrombin is presence in the upper airways and, if so, whether it affects mucin secretion. Fifteen patients with allergic(More)
OBJECTIVES Prostaglandin (PG) E2 is a potential anti-inflammatory mediator that attenuates airway inflammation. To elucidate the functions of the PGE2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) in allergic inflammation, we examined the in vivo effects of EP agonists on mucus hypersecretion and eosinophil infiltration in rat nasal epithelium. METHODS We induced(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined the in vivo effects of agonists for prostaglandin E2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) on mucus hypersecretion. We also examined the in vitro effects of EP agonists on airway epithelial cells. METHODS For the in vivo study, we induced hypertrophic and metaplastic changes of goblet cells in rat nasal epithelium by intranasal(More)