Learn More
Previous estimates of land-atmosphere interaction (the impact of soil moisture on precipitation) have been limited by a lack of observational data and by the model dependence of computational estimates. To counter the second limitation, a dozen climate-modeling groups have recently performed the same highly controlled numerical experiment as part of a(More)
The Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) is a model intercomparison study fo-cusing on a typically neglected yet critical element of numerical weather and climate modeling: land– atmosphere coupling strength, or the degree to which anomalies in land surface state (e.g., soil moisture) can affect rainfall generation and other atmospheric(More)
The anticipated water scarcity in the first half of this century is one of the international issues of most concern, which needs to be adequately addressed. However, even though the issue has an international impact and worldwide monitoring is critical, there are limited global estimates at present. In this study, annual water availability has been derived(More)
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: Abstract This study has conducted a comprehensive model evaluation to help identify(More)
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: a b s t r a c t Region-to-grid source–receptor (S/R) relationships are established for(More)
  • T Oki, S Kanae
  • 2004
Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water(More)
The 12 weather and climate models participating in the Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) show both a wide variation in the strength of land–atmosphere coupling and some intriguing commonalities. In this paper, the causes of variations in coupling strength—both the geographic variations within a given model and the model-to-model(More)
This study has analyzed the global nitrogen loading of rivers resulting from atmospheric deposition, direct discharge, and nitrogenous compounds generated by residential, industrial, and agricultural sources. Fertilizer use, population distribution, land cover, and social census data were used in this study. A terrestrial nitrogen cycle model with a 24-h(More)
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a flexible and popular tool for predicting the non-linear behavior in the environmental system. Here, the feed-forward ANN model was used to investigate the relationship among the land use, fertilizer, and hydrometerological conditions in 59 river basins over Japan and then applied to estimate the monthly river total(More)