Shinji Yamada

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Geometries and interaction energies of benzene complexes with pyridine, pyridinium, N-methylpyridinium were studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. Estimated CCSD(T) interaction energies of the complexes at the basis set limit were -3.04, -14.77, and -9.36 kcal/mol, respectively. The interactions in the pyridinium and N-methylpyridinium(More)
Tetrabutylammonium salts serve as templates for the Norrish-Yang cyclization of 2-benzyloxy-acylbenzenes to give trans-dihydrobenzofuranols in high stereoselectivities. The dual cation-π interactions between an ammonium with a benzene ring and a carbonyl group play a key role in changing the conformation of the substrate, which was supported by ab initio(More)
Beer foam stability is an important characteristic. It has been suggested that isoforms of protein Z, that is, protein Z4 and protein Z7, contribute to beer foam stability. We investigated the relationship between beer foam stability and protein Z4 and protein Z7 using their deficient mutants. As a protein Z4-deficient mutant, cv. Pirkka was used. Protein(More)
Attractive interactions between a thiocarbonyl group and a pyridinium nucleus, and between a carbonyl group and a pyridinium nucleus have been proven by (1)H and (13)C NMR studies, UV-vis spectral analyses, and X-ray crystallographic analyses of nicotinic amides 1 and 3, and pyridinium salts 2 and 4. Comparison of the Deltadelta values, which are the(More)
Cation-π interactions have been widely exploited and utilised in the structural biology arena, their fundamental importance in supramolecular chemistry and the pivotal role they play in host guest chemistry has rapidly expanded. In terms of organic synthesis π-π, CH-π and cation-π interactions are often invoked providing hypotheses for observed(More)
BACKGROUND Changes in saccharide, amino acid and S-methylmethionine (SMM) concentrations and enzyme activities during the malting of barley grown with different nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) supplementation were investigated in order to clarify their relationship with N and S fertiliser levels. RESULTS Concentrations of N and S in barley grain were(More)