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Size-controlled small (i.e. less than 300 microm) polyelectrolyte complex gel beads are urgently desired for wide-spread application, including use in medical, pharmaceutical, and bioengineering fields. However, it was impossible to obtain smaller beads less than 300 microm with conventional apparatuses. We developed a novel microfluidics device that(More)
We developed a microfluidic perfusion cell culture chip that provides three different shear stress strengths and a large cell culture area for the analysis of vascular endothelial functions. The microfluidic network was composed of shallow flow-control channels of three different depths and deep cell culture channels. The flow-control channels with high(More)
Microencapsulation of genetically engineered cells has attracted much attention as an alternative nonviral strategy to gene therapy. Though smaller microcapsules (i.e. less than 300 microm) theoretically have various advantages, technical limitations made it difficult to prove this notion. We have developed a novel microfabricated device, namely a(More)
Cell micropatterning, a method to place cells at arbitrary regions, is becoming an essential tool to conduct cell biology and tissue engineering. Conventional cell patterning techniques usually allow only single patterning with single cell type on the same culture surface. However, biomedical research today requires even sophisticated fabrication methods(More)
In this study, we applied photo-induced graft polymerization to micropatterned surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with poly(ethylene glycol). Two types of monomers, polyethylene glycol monoacrylate (PEGMA) and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), were tested for surface modification of PDMS. Changes in the surface hydrophilicity and(More)
A novel technique called the "lipid-coated ice droplet hydration method" is presented for the preparation of giant vesicles with a controlled size between 4 and 20 microm and entrapment yields for water-soluble molecules of up to about 30%. The method consists of three main steps. In the first step, a monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion with a predetermined(More)
Two Hibiscus (Malvaceae) species coexist on the oceanic Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands: Hibiscus glaber (an endemic species) and H. tiliaceus (the ancestral non-endemic species). Hibiscus tiliaceus produces extrafloral nectar from the sepals, while H. glaber does not. To clarify the effects of extrafloral nectar loss on Hibiscus-insect relationships, we examined(More)
The relationship between species number and island area is a fundamental rule in ecology. However, the extent to which interactions with exotic species and how the structure of species interactions is related to island area remain unexplored. Here, I document the relationship between island area and (i) interactions with exotic species and (ii) network(More)