Shinji Otsuka

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Advances in the management of pediatric brain tumors have increased survival rates in children, but their quality of life is impaired due to cognitive deficits that arise from irradiation. The pathogenesis of these deficits remains unknown, but may involve reduced neurogenesis within the hippocampus. To determine the acute radiosensitivity of the dentate(More)
Clinical and experimental data show that traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced cognitive changes are often manifest as deficits in hippocampal-dependent functions of spatial information processing. The underlying mechanisms for these effects have remained elusive, although recent studies have suggested that the changes in neuronal precursor cells in the(More)
We examined the radiological and histological features of, and the influences of the expression of VEGF and its two major receptors, Flt-1 and Flk-1, on the development of peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) in patients with intracranial meningiomas. The expressions of VEGF and VEGF receptors in the immunohistochemical study were analyzed in relation to several(More)
Therapeutic irradiation of the brain can cause a progressive cognitive dysfunction that may involve defects in neurogenesis. In an effort to understand the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced stem cell dysfunction, neural precursor cells isolated from the adult rat hippocampus were analyzed for acute (0-24 h) and chronic (3-33 days) changes in apoptosis(More)
Previously, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the adenovirus-mediated transduction of the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) for malignant gliomas. However, the molecular pathways that mediate the 5-FC/CD gene therapy-induced cell death remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the induction of apoptosis and the role(More)
Exposure to heavy-ion radiation is considered a potential health risk in long-term space travel. It may result in the loss of critical cellular components in complex systems like the central nervous system (CNS), which could lead to performance decrements that ultimately could compromise mission goals and long-term quality of life. Specific(More)
The underlying mechanisms associated with radiation-induced cognitive impairments remain elusive but may involve changes in hippocampal neural precursor cells. Proliferating neural precursor cells have been shown to be extremely sensitive to X rays, either from damage to the cells themselves and/or through microenvironmental factors, including the(More)
Accumulating evidence indicates that VEGF and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) play a central role in the development of peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) associated with human brain tumors. However, the roles of these proteins, particularly of MMP-9, in PTBE associated with benign meningiomas have not been elucidated. We investigated the association between(More)
The health risks to astronauts exposed to high-LET radiation include possible cognitive deficits. The pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive injury is unknown but may involve loss of neural precursor cells from the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. To address this hypothesis, adult female C57BL/6 mice received whole-body(More)
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