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The paramyxovirus phospho- (P) and nucleocapsid (NP) proteins are involved in transcription and replication of the viral genome. To study the interaction between NP and P proteins, we established HeLa cell lines that constitutively expressed the NP and/or P proteins of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2). Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that(More)
Fusion regulatory proteins (FRPs) are newly defined cell surface molecules that enhance and/or induce virus-mediated cell fusion. Anti-FRP-1 Abs reacted with all of the established cells derived from humans and monkeys, whereas FRPs were found to be selectively expressed on a fraction of monocytes in human PBMCs. Granulocytes expressed no FRP-1 molecules,(More)
HIV vaccine development has been hampered by issues such as undefined correlates of protection and extensive diversity of HIV. We addressed these issues using a previously established SIV-macaque model in which SIV mutants with deletions of multiple gp120 N-glycans function as potent live attenuated vaccines to induce near-sterile immunity against the(More)
The non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been implicated in inhibition of antiviral activity of IFN. While previous studies have suggested an interaction between NS5A and the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), the possibility still remains that interaction with another molecule(s) is involved in the NS5A-mediated(More)
Kaposi's sarcoma associated-herpes virus encodes two proteins, MIR (modulator of immune recognition) 1 and 2, which are involved in the evasion of host immunity. MIR1 and 2 have been shown to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for immune recognition-related molecules (e.g. major histocompatibility complex class I, B7-2, and ICAM-1) through the BKS (bovine(More)
Interaction of the nucleocapsid (NP) and V proteins of human parainfluenza type 2 virus (HPIV-2) was investigated using a transient expression system. When the NP proteins were co-expressed with the V proteins, some of the NP proteins were translocated into the nuclei. These findings suggest that the NP protein interact with the V proteins. We examined the(More)
The V3 region of HIV-1 envelope protein possesses a single N-linked sugar chain, which is conserved in most HIV-1 strains. We studied its role in the life cycle of HIV-1 strains with different co-receptor usage. Removal of the glycan appeared to cause a marked reduction of CXCR-4- but not CCR-5-dependent virus entry. A basic amino acid substitution at the(More)
We previously generated a mutant of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) lacking 5 of a total of 22 N-glycans in its external envelope protein gp120 with no impairment in viral replication capability and infectivity in tissue culture cells. Here, we infected rhesus macaques with this mutant and found that it also replicated robustly in the acute phase but(More)
The envelope glycoprotein (Env) of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) is heavily glycosylated, and this feature has been speculated to be a reason for the insufficient immune control of these viruses by their hosts. In a macaque AIDS model, we demonstrated that quintuple deglycosylation in Env altered a(More)
One of the striking features of human immunodeficiency virus, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and other lentiviruses is extensive N glycosylation of the envelope protein. To assess the requirement of each N glycan for viral infectivity, we individually silenced all 23 N glycosylation sites in the gp120 subunit of SIVmac239 envelope protein by(More)