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The risk of death of unbelted rear-seat occupants is obviously increased in car crashes. However, there is little epidemiological evidence that unbelted rear-seat occupants will also increase the risk of death of front-seat passengers. We compared risk of death and severe injury of front-seat occupants in car crashes with belted or unbelted rear-seat(More)
BACKGROUND Cross-cultural use of the cutoff points determined in Indo-Chinese refugees of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) is common in refugee mental health research but it might have caused misclassifications. METHODS We assessed the validity of the predetermined cutoff points in identifying(More)
OBJECTIVES Afghan asylum seekers in Japan were increasingly subject to detention following the terrorist attack in New York in September 2001, yet little is reported about the net impact of the detention on their mental health. We examined this by comparing asylum seekers who had once been detained in post-migration and their non-detained counterparts. (More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of pre-hospital adrenaline (epinephrine) administered by emergency medical services to patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest. DESIGN Controlled propensity matched retrospective cohort study, in which pairs of patients with or without (control) adrenaline were created with a sequential risk set matching based(More)
Unprotected sexual intercourse among HIV-positive people can adversely affect their own health by increasing their exposure to multiple strains of HIV-1 or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The study explored the relationship between knowledge of Nepalese HIV-positive men about the consequences of having unprotected sex with seroconcordant(More)
INTRODUCTION On 11 March 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake caused a huge tsunami that struck Northeast Japan, resulting in nearly 20 000 deaths. We investigated mortality patterns by age, sex, and region in the 3 most severely affected prefectures. METHODS Using police data on earthquake victims in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures, mortality rates(More)
BACKGROUND In Japan, introduction of severe drunk-driving penalties and a lower blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit in June 2002 was followed by a substantial reduction in fatal alcohol-related crashes. However, previous research suggests that this reduction started before the legal amendments. The causes of the decrease have not been studied in detail.(More)
BACKGROUND For real-time assessment of the probability of survival (Ps) of blunt trauma victims at emergency centers, this study aimed to establish regression models for estimating Ps using simplified coefficients. METHODS The data of 10,210 blunt trauma patients not missing both the binary outcome data about survival and the data necessary for Ps(More)
BACKGROUND Rapid economic growth in Vietnam over the last decade has led to an increased frequency of road traffic injury (RTI), which now represents one of the leading causes of death in the nation. Various efforts toward injury prevention have not produced a significant decline in the incidence of RTIs. Our study sought to describe the geographic(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in those injured and not injured by landmines or unexploded ordnance (UXO) in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic and to determine whether the perception of social support was associated with PTSD symptom severity. METHODS A community survey was conducted among 190 people injured by(More)