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CD180 is homologous to TLR4 and regulates TLR4 signaling, yet its function is unclear. We report that injection of anti-CD180 mAb into mice induced rapid Ig production of all classes and subclasses, with the exception of IgA and IgG2b, with up to 50-fold increases in serum IgG1 and IgG3. IgG production after anti-CD180 injection was not due to reactivation(More)
This is the first report on the establishment of the readily identifiable and functioning thymic nurse cell (TNC) clones from the mouse thymus. In the course of the culture of an epithelial cell line using a medium with a low concentration of Ca2+ from the spontaneous BALB/c thymic tumor, lymphocytes as well as thymic stromal cells which were not apparently(More)
CLRs on DCs play important roles in immunity and are expressed selectively on certain DC subsets. Murine DCAL2 (myeloid inhibitory C-type lectin/Clec12a) is a type-II CLR with an ITIM. Using a mouse DCAL2-specific mAb, we found that DCAL2 is expressed at relatively high levels on APCs and that DCAL2 expression can be used to divide CD8α- DCs into(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is a RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae and the leading cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in the United States. Humoral immunity is essential for protection against WNV infection; however, the requirements for initiating effective antibody responses against WNV infection are still unclear. CD22 (Siglec-2) is expressed on B cells(More)
To understand the lineage relationship and to define morphological characteristics of each thymocyte subset, we have performed ultrastructural analysis of highly purified thymocyte subpopulations. By flow cytometry, five subpopulations were sorted based on the expression of CD4 and CD8 and on cell size (forward scatter): large and small CD4+8+, CD4-8-,(More)
In the monolayer of an established epithelial cell line from the rat thymus, IT-26R21, characteristic cell aggregates quite similar to Hassall's corpuscles were formed. These aggregates were examined by light and electron microscopy, and immunohistochemically. Their interpretation as Hassall's corpuscles is based n the following observations: (1) The(More)
Interactions between thymocytes and thymic stromal cells are essential for thymocyte differentiation, but little evidence has been presented to directly show in vivo functions or interactions of the stromal cells. Among the stromal cells, the thymic epithelial cell has been considered to have profound effect on thymocyte differentiation and maturation. The(More)
To investigate the role of thymic nurse cells (TNC) in activation and differentiation of fetal CD4-CD8- (double-negative) thymocytes, we have co-cultured murine fetal thymocytes (14-15 days of gestation) with an established murine TNC clone. We show here that TNC induced the growth of the fetal double-negative thymocytes in the presence of recombinant(More)
We used a rat thymic epithelial cell line, IT-45R1, as a differentiation inducer to identify rat bone marrow (BM) pre-T cells. The following observations strongly suggest that BM pre-T cells are relatively small to medium-sized and weakly Thy 1 positive (the amount of Thy 1 is much lower than that of majority of adult thymocytes) lymphoid cells: (1)(More)