Shinji Kakei

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A central problem in motor research has been to understand how sensory signals are transformed to generate a goal-directed movement. This problem has been formulated as a set of coordinate transformations that begins with an extrinsic coordinate frame representing the spatial location of a target and ends with an intrinsic coordinate frame describing muscle(More)
We investigated the axonal morphology of single corticothalamic (CT) neurons of the motor cortex (Mx) in the cat thalamus, using a neuronal tracer, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). After localized injection of BDA into the Mx, labeled CT axons were found ipsilaterally in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), the ventroanterior-ventrolateral complex(More)
In the last few years, a lot of publications suggested that disabling cerebellar ataxias may develop through immune-mediated mechanisms. In this consensus paper, we discuss the clinical features of the main described immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias and address their presumed pathogenesis. Immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias include cerebellar ataxia(More)
This study was performed to investigate the pattern of input and the pathways from the six semicircular canals to motoneurons of various neck muscles in anesthetized cats. Intracellular postsynaptic potentials from neck motoneurons were recorded in response to electrical stimulation of the six ampullary nerves. The results showed that motoneurons of a(More)
An accurate estimate of elapsed time is essential for anticipating the timing of future events. Here, we show that the ability to estimate elapsed time on a reaction time (RT) task improved with training during which human participants learned to anticipate the onset of a “Go” signal. In each trial, a warning signal preceded the Go signal by a temporal(More)
Anticipating the timing of behaviorally relevant events is crucial for organizing movement. The time to initiate actions based on events (i.e., reaction time (RT)) is a useful measure to quantify states of anticipation. Few studies have examined how anticipation affects the timing of limb movements. We addressed this question behaviorally with two macaque(More)
In the rodent somatosensory system, stimulus information received by the whiskers is relayed to the barrel cortex via two parallel pathways, the lemniscal pathway and the paralemniscal pathway. The lemniscal pathway includes the principal trigeminal nucleus (Pr5) and the ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPm). The paralemniscal pathway includes the(More)
Spinal commissural neurons (CNs) activated di- or trisynaptically by stimulation of ipsilateral vestibular afferents were stained with intraaxonal injection of horseradish peroxidase in the cat upper cervical spinal cord. Stem axons of CNs in lamina VIII or VII, after crossing the midline, had ascending and/or descending main branches that gave off multiple(More)
To investigate whether corticothalamic (CT) neurons in the motor cortex (Mx) receive cerebellar input via the ventroanterior-ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus (VA-VL), we recorded intracellular potentials from neurons in the Mx of anesthetized cats and examined effects of stimulation of the VA-VL and the brachium conjunctivum on them. After this(More)
In this chapter, we describe our recent work on the divergent properties of single, long descending motor-tract neurons in the spinal cord, using the method of intra-axonal staining with horseradish peroxidase, and serial-section, three-dimensional reconstruction of their axonal trajectories. This work provides evidence that single motor-tract neurons are(More)