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What aspects of movement are represented in the primary motor cortex (M1): relatively low-level parameters like muscle force, or more abstract parameters like handpath? To examine this issue, the activity of neurons in M1 was recorded in a monkey trained to perform a task that dissociates three major variables of wrist movement: muscle activity, direction(More)
The ventral premotor area (PMv) is a major source of input to the primary motor cortex (M1). To examine the potential hierarchical processing between these motor areas, we recorded the activity of PMv neurons in a monkey trained to perform wrist movements in different directions with the wrist in three different postures. The task dissociated three major(More)
In the cat, the cerebellum projects via the ventroanterior-ventrolateral (VA-VL) complex of the thalamus to the motor and premotor cortices and also to the parietal association cortex. Cerebellar inputs to each of these regions have been characterized electrophysiologically by depth profiles of cortical potentials following stimulation of the brachium(More)
Anticipating the timing of behaviorally relevant events is crucial for organizing movement. The time to initiate actions based on events (i.e., reaction time (RT)) is a useful measure to quantify states of anticipation. Few studies have examined how anticipation affects the timing of limb movements. We addressed this question behaviorally with two macaque(More)
A central problem in motor research has been to understand how sensory signals are transformed to generate a goal-directed movement. This problem has been formulated as a set of coordinate transformations that begins with an extrinsic coordinate frame representing the spatial location of a target and ends with an intrinsic coordinate frame describing muscle(More)
We investigated the axonal morphology of single corticothalamic (CT) neurons of the motor cortex (Mx) in the cat thalamus, using a neuronal tracer, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). After localized injection of BDA into the Mx, labeled CT axons were found ipsilaterally in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), the ventroanterior-ventrolateral complex(More)
This study was performed to investigate the pattern of input and the pathways from the six semicircular canals to motoneurons of various neck muscles in anesthetized cats. Intracellular postsynaptic potentials from neck motoneurons were recorded in response to electrical stimulation of the six ampullary nerves. The results showed that motoneurons of a(More)
An accurate estimate of elapsed time is essential for anticipating the timing of future events. Here, we show that the ability to estimate elapsed time on a reaction time (RT) task improved with training during which human participants learned to anticipate the onset of a "Go" signal. In each trial, a warning signal preceded the Go signal by a temporal(More)
To investigate whether corticothalamic (CT) neurons in the motor cortex (Mx) receive cerebellar input via the ventroanterior-ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus (VA-VL), we recorded intracellular potentials from neurons in the Mx of anesthetized cats and examined effects of stimulation of the VA-VL and the brachium conjunctivum on them. After this(More)
BACKGROUND Fundamental cytological changes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were looked for by comparing relatively preserved Onuf's nucleus (ON) and severely affected neighboring motor neuron groups (dorsolateral alpha motoneurons (DL) and other anterior horn neurons (OAH)). The second sacral segments from 11 ALS patients and 5 controls were(More)