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Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is one of the most important detoxification enzymes due to its broad substrate specificity and wide distribution throughout the body. On the other hand, CYP1A1 can also produce highly carcinogenic intermediate metabolites through oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We describe what we believe to be a novel regulatory(More)
Bile acid concentrations are controlled by a feedback regulatory pathway whereby activation of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) represses transcription of both the CYP7A1 gene, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic bile acid synthesis pathway, and the CYP8B1 gene, required for synthesis of cholic acid. The tissue-specific roles of FXR were examined(More)
To determine the impact of the species difference between rodents and humans in response to peroxisome proliferators (PPs) mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, PPAR alpha-humanized transgenic mice were generated using a P1 phage artificial chromosome (PAC) genomic clone bred onto a ppar alpha-null mouse background, designated(More)
Iron deficiency and iron overload are among the most prevalent nutritional disorders worldwide. Duodenal cytochrome b (DcytB) and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) are regulators of iron absorption. Their expression is increased during high systemic requirements for iron, but the molecular mechanisms that regulate DcytB and DMT1 expression are undefined.(More)
Alpha-Klotho (alpha-Kl) and its homolog, beta-Klotho (beta-Kl) are key regulators of mineral homeostasis and bile acid/cholesterol metabolism, respectively. FGF15/ humanFGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, members of the FGF19 subfamily, are believed to act as circulating metabolic regulators. Analyses of functional interactions between alpha- and beta-Kl and FGF19(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is responsible for peroxisome proliferator-induced pleiotropic responses, including the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents. However, it remains to be determined whether activation of PPARalpha only in hepatocytes is sufficient to induce hepatocellular carcinomas. To address this(More)
We report here the identification of mouse betaklotho (betakl), which encodes a type I membrane protein with high resemblance to Klotho (KL). Both betaKL and KL consist of two internal repeats with homology to family 1 glycosidases, while these essential glutamates for the enzymatic activities were not conserved. The identical pattern of substitution and(More)
Several mutations were identified in the kinase domain of the RET proto-oncogene in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2B, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) or sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma. We introduced seven mutations (glutamic acid 768→aspartic acid (E768D), valine 804→leucine (V804L), alanine 883→phenylalanine (A883F),(More)
We have developed a hi ghly parallel and accelerated circuit simulator which produces precise results for large scale simulation. We incorporated multithreading in both the model and matrix calculations to achieve not only a factor of 10 acceleration compared to the defacto standard circuit simulator used worldwide, but also equal or exceed the performance(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Colon epithelial cells are critical for barrier function and contain a highly developed immune response. A previous study has shown hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) as a critical regulator of barrier protection during colon epithelial injury. However, the role of HIF signaling in colon mucosal immunity is not known. METHODS With the use of(More)