Shinji Fukuda

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Gut commensal microbes shape the mucosal immune system by regulating the differentiation and expansion of several types of T cell. Clostridia, a dominant class of commensal microbe, can induce colonic regulatory T (Treg) cells, which have a central role in the suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses. However, the molecular mechanisms by which(More)
Manipulation of the gut microbiota holds great promise for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic diseases. Although numerous probiotic microorganisms have been identified, there remains a compelling need to discover organisms that elicit more robust therapeutic responses, are compatible with the host, and can affect a specific arm of the host immune(More)
The human gut is colonized with a wide variety of microorganisms, including species, such as those belonging to the bacterial genus Bifidobacterium, that have beneficial effects on human physiology and pathology. Among the most distinctive benefits of bifidobacteria are modulation of host defence responses and protection against infectious diseases.(More)
The mucosal immune system forms the largest part of the entire immune system, containing about three-quarters of all lymphocytes and producing grams of secretory IgA daily to protect the mucosal surface from pathogens. To evoke the mucosal immune response, antigens on the mucosal surface must be transported across the epithelial barrier into organized(More)
Super-Kamiokande is the world’s largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons. During the period April, 1996 to July, 2001, Super-Kamiokande I collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Present address: University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. Present address: California Institute of Technology, Pasadena,(More)
Lactobacillus reuteri is a heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium that naturally inhabits the gut of humans and other animals. The probiotic effects of L. reuteri have been proposed to be largely associated with the production of the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound reuterin during anaerobic metabolism of glycerol. We determined the complete genome(More)
Intestinal microfold cells (M cells) are an enigmatic lineage of intestinal epithelial cells that initiate mucosal immune responses through the uptake and transcytosis of luminal antigens. The mechanisms of M-cell differentiation are poorly understood, as the rarity of these cells has hampered analysis. Exogenous administration of the cytokine RANKL can(More)
In the developing brain neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes are differentiated from common multipotent progenitors called neural stem cells. We have examined the effect of cytokines on mouse neuroepithelial cells that are known to contain neural stem cells. Cytokines belonging to the interleukin (IL)-6 family and those classified into the bone(More)
Our series of studies on Hunter disease in Japanese patients showed allelic heterogeneity of IDS gene mutations, genotype/phenotype correlation and racial differences in distribution of mutations. Twenty-five different small mutations have been characterized. Small mutations in the Japanese population are widely distributed through the IDS gene, although(More)
Heavy-ion-induced SET-pulse widths in NOR-logic cells fabricated by a 0.2-mum FD-SOI technology are directly measured by using an on-chip self-triggering flip-flop circuit. The pulse widths are distributed from 0.3 to 1.0 ns under a constant LET of 40 MeVmiddot cm <sup>2</sup>/mg