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Many higher plants have evolved self-incompatibility mechanisms to prevent self-fertilization. In Brassica self-incompatibility, recognition between pollen and the stigma is controlled by the S locus, which contains three highly polymorphic genes: S-receptor kinase (SRK), S-locus protein 11 (SP11) (also called S-locus cysteine-rich protein; SCR) and S-locus(More)
Many flowering plants possess self-incompatibility (SI) systems that prevent inbreeding. In Brassica, SI is controlled by a single polymorphic locus, the S locus. Two highly polymorphic S locus genes, SLG (S locus glycoprotein) and SRK (S receptor kinase), have been identified, both of which are expressed predominantly in the stigmatic papillar cell. We(More)
The 70 kDa heat shock family of molecular chaperones is essential to a variety of cellular processes, yet it is unclear how these proteins are regulated in vivo. We present evidence that the protein BAG-1 is a potential modulator of the molecular chaperones, Hsp70 and Hsc70. BAG-1 binds to the ATPase domain of Hsp70 and Hsc70, without requirement for their(More)
The Bcl-2 protein blocks programmed cell death (apoptosis) through an unknown mechanism. Previously we identified a Bcl-2 interacting protein BAG-1 that enhances the anti-apoptotic effects of Bcl-2. Like BAG-1, the serine/threonine protein kinase Raf-1 also can functionally cooperate with Bcl-2 in suppressing apoptosis. Here we show that Raf-1 and BAG-1(More)
BAG-1 is a multifunctional protein that blocks apoptosis and interacts with several types of proteins, including Bcl-2 family proteins, the kinase Raf-1, certain tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors, and steroid hormone receptors, possibly by virtue of its ability to regulate the Hsp70/Hsc70 family of molecular chaperones. Two major forms of the human(More)
Soft lithography, a set of techniques for microfabrication, is based on printing and molding using elastomeric stamps with the patterns of interest in basrelief. As a technique for fabricating microstructures for biological applications, soft lithography overcomes many of the shortcomings of photolithography. In particular, soft lithography offers the(More)
2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), which is produced during cooking and is mutagenic to bacteria and cultured mammalian cells, was found to induce high incidences of colon and mammary carcinomas in F344 rats when administered at a concentration of 400 p.p.m. in the diet for 52 weeks. Since PhIP is the most abundant of the mutagenic(More)
BAG-1 is a regulator of heat shock protein (Hsp) 70/Hsc70 family proteins that interacts with steroid hormone receptors. The recently identified BAG-1 long (BAG-1L) protein, an isoform of BAG-1 that arises from translation initiation at a noncanonical CUG codon, was co-immunoprecipitated with androgen receptors (AR) from LNCaP prostate cancer cells and(More)
In response to insulin, a hormone [hepatic insulin sensitizing substance (HISS)] is released from the liver to stimulate glucose uptake in skeletal muscle but not liver or gut. The aim was to characterize dynamic control of HISS action in response to insulin and regulation of release by hepatic parasympathetic nerves. Insulin action was assessed by the(More)
Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity tests of potassium bromate (KBrO3), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and sodium chlorite (NaClO2) have been conducted in Japan from 1977 to 1985. In these investigations, groups of approximately 50 male and 50 female F344 rats or B6C3F1 mice were given solutions of the compounds as their drinking water ad libitum at two dose(More)