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OBJECT To enhance the surgeon's dexterity and maneuverability in the deep surgical field, the authors developed a master-slave microsurgical robotic system. This concept and the results of preliminary experiments are reported in this paper. METHODS The system has a master control unit, which conveys motion commands in six degrees of freedom (X, Y, and Z(More)
Wavelength-tuning interferometry can measure surface shapes with discontinuous steps using a unit of synthetic wavelength that is usually larger than the step height. However, measurement resolution decreases for large step heights since the synthetic wavelength becomes much larger than the source wavelength. The excess fraction method with a piezoelectric(More)
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