A general and simple method for obtaining R2 from generalized linear mixed‐effects models
- Shinichi Nakagawa, H. Schielzeth
- 1 February 2013
The use of both linear and generalized linear mixed‐effects models (LMMs and GLMMs) has become popular not only in social and medical sciences, but also in biological sciences, especially in the…
Effect size, confidence interval and statistical significance: a practical guide for biologists
- Shinichi Nakagawa, I. Cuthill
- BiologyBiological Reviews of The Cambridge Philosophical…
- 1 November 2007
This article extensively discusses two dimensionless (and thus standardised) classes of effect size statistics: d statistics (standardised mean difference) and r statistics (correlation coefficient), because these can be calculated from almost all study designs and also because their calculations are essential for meta‐analysis.
Repeatability for Gaussian and non‐Gaussian data: a practical guide for biologists
- Shinichi Nakagawa, H. Schielzeth
- Computer ScienceBiological Reviews of The Cambridge Philosophical…
- 1 November 2010
Two types of repeatability (ordinary repeatability and extrapolated repeatability) are compared in relation to narrow‐sense heritability and two methods for calculating standard errors, confidence intervals and statistical significance are addressed.
A farewell to Bonferroni: the problems of low statistical power and publication bias
- Shinichi Nakagawa
- EducationBehavioral Ecology
- 1 November 2004
The meta-analysis on statistical power by Jennions and Moller (2003) revealed that, in the field of behavioral ecology and animal behavior, statistical power of less than 20% to detect a small effect and power of more than 50% to detects a medium effect existed.
Redefine statistical significance
- D. Benjamin, J. Berger, V. Johnson
- EconomicsNature Human Behaviour
The default P-value threshold for statistical significance is proposed to be changed from 0.05 to 0.005 for claims of new discoveries in order to reduce uncertainty in the number of discoveries.
A quantitative review of heterozygosity–fitness correlations in animal populations
- J. R. Chapman, Shinichi Nakagawa, D. Coltman, J. Slate, B. Sheldon
- BiologyMolecular Ecology
- 1 July 2009
It is shown that HFC studies do not generally reveal patterns predicted by population genetic theory, and are of small effect, and future studies should use more genetic marker data and utilize sampling designs that shed more light on the biological mechanisms that may modulate the strength of association.
Methodological issues and advances in biological meta-analysis
- Shinichi Nakagawa, E. S. Santos
- BiologyEvolutionary Ecology
- 17 February 2012
It is shown how the marriage between mixed-effects (hierarchical/multilevel) models and phylogenetic comparative methods has resolved most of the issues under discussion and how the use of within-study meta-analysis can improve many empirical studies typical of ecology and evolution.
Missing inaction: the dangers of ignoring missing data.
- Shinichi Nakagawa, R. Freckleton
- Computer ScienceTrends in Ecology & Evolution
- 1 November 2008
What determines species richness of parasitic organisms? A meta‐analysis across animal, plant and fungal hosts
- T. Kamiya, K. O'Dwyer, Shinichi Nakagawa, R. Poulin
- Environmental ScienceBiological Reviews of The Cambridge Philosophical…
- 1 February 2014
Three universal predictors of parasite richness across host species are uncovered, namely host body size, geographical range size and population density, applicable regardless of the taxa considered and independently of most aspects of study design.
The costs of parental care: a meta‐analysis of the trade‐off between parental effort and survival in birds
- E. S. Santos, Shinichi Nakagawa
- Psychology, BiologyJournal of Evolutionary Biology
- 1 September 2012
The results suggest that the trade‐off between parental effort and survival is more complex than previously assumed and provides recommendations of unexplored avenues of future research into life‐history trade‐offs.