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BACKGROUND Erythropoietin (EPO), originally identified as a hematopoietic growth factor produced in the kidney and fetal liver, is also endogenously expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). EPO in the CNS, mainly produced in astrocytes, is induced under hypoxic conditions in a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent manner and plays a dominant role(More)
BACKGROUND Glial cells, including microglia and astrocytes, are considered the primary source of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain. Immune insults stimulate glial cells to secrete proinflammatory cytokines that modulate the acute systemic response, which includes fever, behavioral changes, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. We(More)
AIMS In addition to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an endogenously synthesized gaseous molecule that acts as an important signaling molecule in the living body. Transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is known to respond to intracellular reduced oxygen (O(2)) availability, which is regulated by an elaborate(More)
The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an essential role in regulating gene expression in response to hypoxia-ischemia. Ischemia causes the tissue not only to be hypoxic but also to be hypothermic because of the hypoperfusion under certain circumstances. On the other hand, the induced hypothermia is one of the most common(More)
Mouse C3b/C4b inactivator (C3b/C4bINA) was purified approximately 400 times from mouse serum. It is a beta-globulin and consists of 2 disulfide bonded chains of m.w. 60,000 and 35,000. Under nonreducing conditions, its m.w. is 95,000. It cleaves the alpha'-chain of cell-bound C4b into 3 fragments: alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 4. The alpha 2 fragments remain(More)
BACKGROUND Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exhibits protective effects in various disease models including cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Nonetheless, mechanisms and identity of molecules responsible for neuroprotective effects of H2S remain incompletely defined. In the current study, we observed that thiosulfate, an oxidation product of H2S, mediates(More)
Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major contributor to the development of a large number of fatal and debilitating disorders. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of CS in lung disease are largely unknown. To elucidate these pathophysiological processes, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of CS extract (CSE) and CS on the(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor responsible for hypoxia-induced gene expression. Perioperative drugs including anesthetics have been reported to affect HIF-1 activity. However, the effect of fentanyl on HIF-1 activity is not well documented. In this study, we investigated the effect of fentanyl and other opioids on HIF-1(More)
RATIONALE The regulation of calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis by β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) activation provides the essential underpinnings of sympathetic regulation of myocardial function, as well as a basis for understanding molecular events that result in hypertrophic signaling and heart failure. Sympathetic stimulation of the βAR not only induces protein(More)
Proper glycemic control is one of the most important goals in perioperative patient management. Insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells in response to an increased blood glucose concentration plays the most critical role in glycemic control. Several animal and human studies have indicated that volatile anesthetics impair glucose-stimulated insulin(More)