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Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Lycopus lucidus, has been reported to be a selective inducer of apoptosis in various human cancer and shown anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. We postulated that BA modulates the immunomodulatory properties at least two groups of protein mediators of inflammation, interleukin-1beta(More)
Auranofin (AF), a gold compound, is an orally active therapeutic agent used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a self-perpetuating inflammatory disease. RA is characterized by autoimmune-mediated proliferation of synovial cells that leads to inflammation, pain, and swelling in most major joints: However, the mechanism as to how AF relieves RA symptoms has(More)
Auranofin (AF), an orally administered, gold-based, anti-arthritic agent, has emerged as a clinically useful therapeutic drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, we examined the effects of AF on major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted antigen presentation in dendritic cells (DCs), which are the most important accessory(More)
Monocytes and macrophages play a major role in defense mechanism of the host response to tumor, in part through the secretion of several potent products and macrophage cytokines. Monocytes and tissue macrophages produce at least two groups of protein mediators of inflammation, interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Recent studies emphasizes(More)
The herb, Chrysanthemum zawadskii var, latilobum commomly known as Gu-Jul-Cho in Korea, used in traditional medicine to treat pneumonia, bronchitis, cough, common cold, pharyngitis, bladder-related disorders, gastroenteric disorders, and hypertension. Linarin is the main active compound and the biological mechanisms of its activity are unclear. It is(More)
Arctiin, isolated from Forsythia suspensa has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antibacterial, and antiviral effects in vitro. However, there has been a lack of studies regarding its effects on immunological activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential and possible mechanisms of arctiin in(More)
Previous studies have shown that dendritic cells (DCs) can phagocytize, process and present a microencapsulated form of ovalbumin (OVA) in the context of class I MHC as well as class II MHC. In the present study, we examined the effects of recombinant human macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) on the MHC-restricted presentation of microencapsulated(More)
Dioscoreae Rhizome (DR) has been used in traditional medicine to treat numerous diseases and is reported to have anti-diabetes and anti-tumor activities. To identify a bioactive traditional medicine with anti-inflammatory activity of a water extract of DR (EDR), we determined the mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages through(More)
BACKGROUND Cordyceps militarys water extract (CME) has been reported to exert antitumor and immunomodulatory activities in vivo and in vitro. However, the therapeutic mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of CME on the antigen presenting function of antigen presenting cells (APCs). METHODS Dendritic cells (DCs) were(More)
BACKGROUND Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) has been used to treat inflammatory diseases including edema and arthritis; however, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of SM action remains unresolved. METHODS The effects of an ethanol extract of SM (ESM) on pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and NO, on anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4,(More)