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The Mhc is a highly conserved gene region especially interesting to geneticists because of the rapid evolution of gene families found within it. High levels of Mhc genetic diversity often exist within populations. The chicken Mhc is the focus of considerable interest because of the strong, reproducible infectious disease associations found with particular(More)
Axon guidance requires signal transduction of extracellular cues through the plasma membrane for directional motility. Here we present evidence that cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) mediate specific guidance responses of nerve growth cones. Disruption of lipid rafts by various approaches targeting cholesterol or(More)
Living organisms respond to phosphate limitation by expressing various genes whose products maintain an appropriate range of phosphate concentrations within each cell. We identified previously a two component system, which consists of histidine kinase SphS and its cognate response regulator SphR, which regulates the expression of the phoA gene for alkaline(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in synaptic plasticity but the underlying signaling mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that BDNF rapidly recruits full-length TrkB (TrkB-FL) receptor into cholesterol-rich lipid rafts from nonraft regions of neuronal plasma membranes. Translocation of TrkB-FL was blocked by Trk(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, are broadly expressed in the developing and adult mammalian brain. BDNF/TrkB-stimulated intracellular signaling is critical for neuronal survival, morphogenesis, and plasticity. It is well known that binding of BDNF to TrkB elicits various intracellular signaling pathways, including(More)
High-density oligonucleotide arrays are widely used for analysis of genome-wide expression and genetic variation. Affymetrix GeneChips – common high-density oligonucleotide arrays – contain perfect match (PM) and mismatch (MM) probes generated by changing a single nucleotide of the PMs, to estimate cross-hybridization. However, a fraction of MM probes(More)
Changes in synaptic efficacy are considered necessary for learning and memory. Recently, it has been suggested that estrogen controls synaptic function in the central nervous system. However, it is unclear how estrogen regulates synaptic function in central nervous system neurons. We found that estrogen potentiated presynaptic function in cultured(More)
Ca(2+) signaling plays a central role in activity-dependent regulation of dendritic arborization, but key molecular mechanisms downstream of calcium elevation remain poorly understood. Here we show that the C-terminal region of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CLICK-III (CL3)/CaMKIgamma, a membrane-anchored CaMK, was uniquely modified by two(More)
Although many mutations contributing to antibiotic resistance have been identified, the relationship between the mutations and the related phenotypic changes responsible for the resistance has yet to be fully elucidated. To better characterize phenotype-genotype mapping for drug resistance, here we analyse phenotypic and genotypic changes of(More)