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Thought disorder is one of the primary symptoms in schizophrenia, yet the neural correlates and related semantic processing abnormalities remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between functional prefrontal abnormalities and thought disorder in schizophrenia using 2 types of verbal fluency tasks: the letter fluency task (LFT) and the(More)
Functional neuroimaging studies to date have shown prefrontal dysfunction during executive tasks in schizophrenia. However, relationships between hemodynamic response in prefrontal sub-regions and clinical characteristics have been unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate prefrontal hemodynamic response related to an executive task in(More)
PURPOSE From the standpoint of dental medicine, denture wearing is considered to improve chewing ability, chewing comfort, and quality of life in elderly individuals. We attempted to clarify the effects of prosthodontic treatment on activation of the dorsal prefrontal cortex, which is involved in higher cognitive functions. METHODS Three partially(More)
The present study investigated whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the parietal cortex improves the performance of healthy persons in a spatial working memory (WM) task. The effect of TMS on the frontal cortex was examined by measuring oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) with near-infrared spectroscopy. Fifty-two healthy persons received either(More)
A serious problem in psychiatric practice is the lack of specific, objective biomarker-based assessments to guide diagnosis and treatment. The use of such biomarkers could assist clinicians in establishing differential diagnosis, which may improve specific individualised treatment. This multi-site study sought to develop a clinically suitable(More)
BACKGROUND Caudal regions of the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsolateral (DLPFC) and ventrolateral (VLPFC) prefrontal cortex, are involved in essential cognitive functions such as working memory. In contrast, more rostral regions, such as the frontopolar cortex (FpC), have integrative functions among cognitive functions and thereby contribute(More)
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies have reported that prefrontal hemodynamic dysfunction during executive function tasks may be a promising biomarker of psychiatric disorders, because its portability and noninvasiveness allow easy measurements in clinical settings. Here, we investigated the degree to which prefrontal NIRS signals are genetically(More)
Recent neuroimaging studies have shown similarities and differences in prefrontal abnormalities between patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the differential spatiotemporal characteristics of these abnormalities and their association with functional impairment remain unclear. To elucidate differential brain(More)
The early growth response 3 (EGR3) gene is an immediate early gene that is expressed throughout the brain and has been suggested as a potential susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SZ). EGR3 impairment is associated with various neurodevelopmental dysfunctions, and some animal studies have reported a role for EGR3 function in the prefrontal cortex.(More)