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Functional neuroimaging studies to date have shown prefrontal dysfunction during executive tasks in schizophrenia. However, relationships between hemodynamic response in prefrontal sub-regions and clinical characteristics have been unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate prefrontal hemodynamic response related to an executive task in(More)
-This paper describes a method of classifying single view deaf-and-mute sign language motion images. We suppose the sign language word is composed of a time sequence of units called cheremes. The chereme is described by handshape, movement, and location of the hand, which can be said to express the 3-D features of the sign language. First, a dictionary for(More)
BACKGROUND Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been shown to be associated with both poor short-term and long-term outcomes in schizophrenia. Even so, few studies have used functional neuroimaging to investigate DUP in schizophrenia. In the present study, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate the influence of DUP on brain functions(More)
Thought disorder is one of the primary symptoms in schizophrenia, yet the neural correlates and related semantic processing abnormalities remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between functional prefrontal abnormalities and thought disorder in schizophrenia using 2 types of verbal fluency tasks: the letter fluency task (LFT) and the(More)
The differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based solely on symptomatic and behavioral assessments can be difficult, even for experts. Thus, the development of a neuroimaging marker that differentiates ASDs from ADHD would be an important contribution to this field. We assessed the(More)
PURPOSE From the standpoint of dental medicine, denture wearing is considered to improve chewing ability, chewing comfort, and quality of life in elderly individuals. We attempted to clarify the effects of prosthodontic treatment on activation of the dorsal prefrontal cortex, which is involved in higher cognitive functions. METHODS Three partially(More)
Methamphetamine abuse and dependence, frequently accompanied by schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms [methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP)], is a serious public health problem worldwide. Few studies, however, have characterized brain dysfunction associated with MAP, nor investigated similarities and differences in brain dysfunction between MAP and(More)
The present study investigated whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the parietal cortex improves the performance of healthy persons in a spatial working memory (WM) task. The effect of TMS on the frontal cortex was examined by measuring oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) with near-infrared spectroscopy. Fifty-two healthy persons received either(More)
A serious problem in psychiatric practice is the lack of specific, objective biomarker-based assessments to guide diagnosis and treatment. The use of such biomarkers could assist clinicians in establishing differential diagnosis, which may improve specific individualised treatment. This multi-site study sought to develop a clinically suitable(More)
The early growth response 3 (EGR3) gene is an immediate early gene that is expressed throughout the brain and has been suggested as a potential susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SZ). EGR3 impairment is associated with various neurodevelopmental dysfunctions, and some animal studies have reported a role for EGR3 function in the prefrontal cortex.(More)