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Functional neuroimaging studies to date have shown prefrontal dysfunction during executive tasks in schizophrenia. However, relationships between hemodynamic response in prefrontal sub-regions and clinical characteristics have been unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate prefrontal hemodynamic response related to an executive task in(More)
A serious problem in psychiatric practice is the lack of specific, objective biomarker-based assessments to guide diagnosis and treatment. The use of such biomarkers could assist clinicians in establishing differential diagnosis, which may improve specific individualised treatment. This multi-site study sought to develop a clinically suitable(More)
BACKGROUND Caudal regions of the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsolateral (DLPFC) and ventrolateral (VLPFC) prefrontal cortex, are involved in essential cognitive functions such as working memory. In contrast, more rostral regions, such as the frontopolar cortex (FpC), have integrative functions among cognitive functions and thereby contribute(More)
The present study investigated whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the parietal cortex improves the performance of healthy persons in a spatial working memory (WM) task. The effect of TMS on the frontal cortex was examined by measuring oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) with near-infrared spectroscopy. Fifty-two healthy persons received either(More)
Recent neuroimaging studies have shown similarities and differences in prefrontal abnormalities between patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the differential spatiotemporal characteristics of these abnormalities and their association with functional impairment remain unclear. To elucidate differential brain(More)
PURPOSE From the standpoint of dental medicine, denture wearing is considered to improve chewing ability, chewing comfort, and quality of life in elderly individuals. We attempted to clarify the effects of prosthodontic treatment on activation of the dorsal prefrontal cortex, which is involved in higher cognitive functions. METHODS Three partially(More)
Methamphetamine abuse and dependence, frequently accompanied by schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms [methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP)], is a serious public health problem worldwide. Few studies, however, have characterized brain dysfunction associated with MAP, nor investigated similarities and differences in brain dysfunction between MAP and(More)
Recent studies have indicated the potential clinical use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a tool in assisting the diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD); however, it is still unclear whether NIRS signal changes during cognitive task are state- or trait-dependent, and whether NIRS could be a neural predictor of treatment response. Therefore, we(More)
BACKGROUND Few biomarkers can be used easily and noninvasively to measure clinical condition and future outcome in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). To develop such biomarker using multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), cortical function in the prefrontal cortex was longitudinally measured during a verbal fluency task. (More)