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The phosphorylation of the human estrogen receptor (ER) serine residue at position 118 is required for full activity of the ER activation function 1 (AF-1). This Ser118 is phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in vitro and in cells treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) in vivo. Overexpression of(More)
Analysis of transgenic mice expressing familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked mutations in the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have shown that motor neuron death arises from a mutant-mediated toxic property or properties. In testing the disease mechanism, both elimination and elevation of wild-type SOD1 were found to have no effect on(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) is a physiological agent that has a wide range of biological activity and appears to regulate developmental programs of vertebrates. However, little is known about the molecular basis of its metabolism. Here we have identified a novel cytochrome P450 (P450RA) that specifically metabolizes RA. In vitro, P450RA converts all-trans RA into(More)
FGF receptor 2 isoform IIIb (FGFR2b), originally discovered as a receptor for FGF7, is known to be an important receptor in vertebrate morphogenesis, because FGFR2b null mice exhibit agenesis or dysgenesis of various organs, which undergo budding and branching morphogenesis. Since FGF7 null mice do not exhibit marked defects in organogenesis, it has been(More)
To examine whether the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) are involved in the signal transduction mechanism of the opioid receptor, the delta-, mu-, and kappa-opioid receptors were stably expressed from cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Activation of the delta-, mu-, and kappa-receptors by agonists induced a rapid(More)
The estrogen receptor (ER) regulates the expression of target genes in a ligand-dependent manner. The ligand-dependent activation function AF-2 of the ER is located in the ligand binding domain (LBD), while the N-terminal A/B domain (AF-1) functions in a ligand-independent manner when isolated from the LBD. AF-1 and AF-2 exhibit cell type and promoter(More)
The localization of cells immunoreactive to a monoclonal antibody against protein kinase C (PKC) and to polyclonal antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was investigated in the retina of fish (carp, goldfish, dace and catfish), frog, turtle, chick and some mammalians (guinea pig, rat, cat and rabbit) by means of fluorescence microscopy. PKC-like(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the external genitalia in mammals have been very little examined. Recent gene knockout studies have suggested that the developmental processes of its anlage, the genital tubercle (GT), have much in common with those of limb buds. The Fgf genes have been postulated as regulating several downstream genes(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that primarily involves the motor neuron system. Approximately 5-10% of ALS is familial. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene mutations are shown to be associated with about 20% of familial ALS (FALS) patients. The neuronal Lewy-body-like hyaline inclusion (LBHI) and astrocytic(More)