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The Arabidopsis mutant defective in anther dehiscence1 (dad1) shows defects in anther dehiscence, pollen maturation, and flower opening. The defects were rescued by the exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) or linolenic acid, which is consistent with the reduced accumulation of JA in the dad1 flower buds. We identified the DAD1 gene by T-DNA tagging,(More)
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in the human digestive tract, but their molecular etiology and cellular origin are unknown. Sequencing of c-kit complementary DNA, which encodes a proto-oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT), from five GISTs revealed mutations in the region between the transmembrane and(More)
The blue light receptor NPH1 (for nonphototropic hypocotyl) has been considered to be the only UV-A/blue light receptor that induces a phototropic response by the hypocotyl and root of Arabidopsis. By analysis of root phototropism (rpt) mutants, we show, however, the involvement of another blue light receptor as well as the existence of two separate(More)
Chloroplasts relocate their positions in a cell in response to the intensity of incident light, moving to the side wall of the cell to avoid strong light, but gathering at the front face under weak light to maximize light interception. Here, Arabidopsis thaliana mutants defective in the avoidance response were isolated, and the mutated gene was identified(More)
The light-harvesting efficiency of a photosystem is thought to be largely dependent on its photosynthetic antenna size. It has been suggested that antenna size is controlled by the biosynthesis of chlorophyll b. To verify this hypothesis, we overexpressed the enzyme for chlorophyll b biosynthesis, chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO), in Arabidopsis thaliana by(More)
We analyzed mutations of 7 vitamin K-dependent protein and cytochrome P450 2C9 genes in 45 patients and investigated whether any contribute to the large interpatient variability in the warfarin dose-effect relationship. Total clearance and daily dose, INR and INR/Cp, were used as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic indexes, respectively. Patients were(More)
In this paper I attempt to obtain new theoretical insights by combining the standard moral hazard models of principal-agent relationships with theories of other-regarding (inequity averse or status-seeking) preferences. In the benchmark principal-agent model, the principal and the agent are both risk neutral, while the agent is wealth constrained, and hence(More)
BACKGROUND Depth of submucosal invasion (SM depth) in submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma (SICC) is considered an important predictive factor for lymph node metastasis. However, no nationwide reports have clarified the relationship between SM depth and rate of lymph node metastasis. Our aim was to investigate the correlations between lymph node(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the widespread use of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC), its longterm outcomes have not been fully evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate longterm survival after complete EMR for EGC. METHODS From patients who underwent EMR between 1978 and 1996 at our center, we enrolled 131 patients with(More)
In a principal–multi-agent setting we investigate how optimal contracts should be modified under relative performance evaluation when agents collude. Agents may write side-contracts, which are not contingent on their effort choices but indirectly control them through side-transfers. We show that the optimal collusion-proof contract is to introduce a(More)