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The ligands for programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), an immunoinhibitory receptor belonging to CD28/cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 family, are PD-1 ligand 1 and 2 (PD-Ls). Recent reports suggest that the aberrant expression of PD-Ls on tumor cells impairs antitumor immunity, resulting in the immune evasion of the tumor cells. Although an inverse correlation(More)
Naturally occurring CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells are engaged in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and down-regulation of various immune responses. Recent studies with mice showed that Foxp3, which encodes the transcription factor Scurfin, is a master regulatory gene for the development and function of CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells. Here(More)
Intrauterine undernutrition is closely associated with obesity related to detrimental metabolic sequelae in adulthood. We report a mouse model in which offspring with fetal undernutrition (UN offspring), when fed a high-fat diet (HFD), develop pronounced weight gain and adiposity. In the neonatal period, UN offspring exhibited a premature onset of neonatal(More)
PURPOSE Endometriotic cysts are known to transform into ovarian cancers, such as clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas. We hypothesized that an iron-rich environment produced by the repetition of hemorrhage in the endometriotic cysts during the reproductive period may play a crucial role in carcinogenesis in the cysts through the iron-induced persistent(More)
The mechanism for decreased insulin sensitivity in pregnant women is not fully clarified. Resistin, a novel peptide hormone, is specifically expressed in the adipose tissue and decreases insulin sensitivity in rodents. In the present study, we demonstrate resistin gene expression in the human placental tissue, mainly in trophoblastic cells. The resistin(More)
PURPOSE To determine the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI of uterine endometrial cancer and to investigate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of endometrial cancer differ from those of normal endometrium and whether they differ according to the histologic grade of the tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study population included 18(More)
PURPOSE To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in depicting posterior cul-de-sac obliteration in patients with endometriosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Institutional review board approval was not required for this retrospective study, but informed consent was obtained from all patients. MR images obtained between January(More)
Recent studies have revealed that neural precursor cells can be expanded not only from the subventricular zone and hippocampus but also from other regions of the human embryonic brain. To determine the regional differences of these precursor cells, we divided the brain of a 9-week-old human embryo into four parts, i.e., telencephalon, diencephalon,(More)
Escherichia coli possesses two members of the newly discovered class of Y DNA polymerases (Ohmori et al., 2001): Pol IV (dinB) and Pol V (umuD'C). Polymerases that belong to this family are often referred to as specialized or error-prone DNA polymerases to distinguish them from the previously discovered DNA polymerases (Pol I, II, and III) that are(More)
Most DNA polymerases interact with their cognate processive replication factor through a small peptide, this interaction being absolutely required for their function in vivo. We have solved the crystal structure of a complex between the beta sliding clamp of Escherichia coli and the 16 residue C-terminal peptide of Pol IV (P16). The seven C-terminal(More)