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OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in bladder cancer (BCa) progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS The gene copy number of PPARγ in human BCa tissue samples was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The migration and invasive ability of human BCa cell lines with different PPARγ expression levels(More)
Prostate cancer (PCa) stem/progenitor cells are known to have higher chemoresistance than non-stem/progenitor cells, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. We found the expression of testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) is significantly higher in PCa CD133(+) stem/progenitor cells compared with CD133(-) non-stem/progenitor cells. Knockdown(More)
Testicular orphan nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily with diverse physiological functions. Using TR4 knockout (TR4(-/-)) mice to study its function in cardiovascular diseases, we found reduced cluster of differentiation (CD)36 expression with reduced foam cell formation in TR4(-/-) mice. Mechanistic dissection(More)
Testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4), also known as NR2C2, belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and shares high homology with the testicular nuclear receptor 2. The natural ligands of TR4 remained unclear until the recent discoveries of several energy/lipid sensors including the polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid(More)
The testicular receptor 4 (TR4) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that controls various biological activities. A protective role of TR4 against oxidative stress has recently been discovered. We here examined the protective role of TR4 against ionizing radiation (IR) and found that small hairpin RNA mediated TR4 knockdown cells were highly(More)
Testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) plays protective roles against oxidative stress and DNA damage and might contribute to aging. Our recent clinical tumor tissue staining results showed higher expression of TR4 in prostate cancer (PCa) patients with high Gleason scores compared to the tissues with the low Gleason scores. In vitro migration/invasion assays(More)
A recent report indicated that the TR4 nuclear receptor might suppress the prostate cancer (PCa) initiation via modulating the DNA damage/repair system. Knocking-out peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), a nuclear receptor that shares similar ligands/activators with TR4, promoted PCa initiation. Here we found 9% of PCa patients have one(More)
Testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, plays important roles in metabolism, fertility and aging. The linkage of TR4 functions in cancer progression, however, remains unclear. Using three different mouse models, we found TR4 could prevent or delay prostate cancer (PCa)/prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia(More)
BACKGROUND Early studies suggested that TR4 nuclear receptor might play important roles in the skeletal development, yet its detailed mechanism remains unclear. METHODS We generated TR4 knockout mice and compared skeletal development with their wild type littermates. Primary bone marrow cells were cultured and we assayed bone differentiation by alkaline(More)
Testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4), also known as NR2C2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group C, member 2), is a transcriptional factor and a member of the nuclear receptor family. TR4 was initially cloned from human and rat hypothalamus, prostate, and testes libraries. For almost two decades, its specific tissue distribution, genomic organization, and(More)