Shin-ichiro M. Nomura

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Functional protein synthesis was observed in cell-sized lipid vesicles following encapsulation of a gene-expression system. Expression of rsGFP (red-shifted green fluorescent protein) within individual vesicles was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Interestingly, at the early stage of the reaction, the expression efficiency inside the vesicle was(More)
We report here a novel carrier of quantum dots (QDs) for intracellular labeling. Monodisperse hybrid nanoparticles (38 nm in diameter) of QDs were prepared by simple mixing with nanogels of cholesterol-bearing pullulan (CHP) modified with amino groups (CHPNH2). The CHPNH2-QD nanoparticles were effectively internalized into the various human cells examined.(More)
Proteoliposomes were directly prepared by synthesizing membrane proteins with the use of minimal protein synthesis factors isolated from Escherichia coli (the PURE system) in the presence of liposomes. Connexin-43 (Cx43), which is a water-insoluble integral membrane protein that forms a hexameric complex in membranes, was cotranslationally integrated with(More)
An in vitro translation system, based on cell components of the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus kodakaraensis, has previously been developed. The system has been optimized and applied for protein production at high temperatures (60-65 degrees C). In this paper, we have examined the possibilities to utilize this system at a lower temperature range(More)
We investigated the direct constitution of membrane proteins into giant liposomes in cell-free (in vitro) protein synthesis. Giant liposomes were present in a translation reaction cocktail of a wheat germ cell-free protein translation system. Apo cytochrome b(5) (b5) and its fusion proteins were synthesized and directly localized in the liposomes. After the(More)
The integral membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin, containing a fluorescent amino acid at a specific position, was synthesized in the presence of hydrated lipid films using an in vitro translation system expanded with a four-base codon/anticodon pair. Cell-sized liposomes with the labeled protein inserted into the liposome membranes were generated after the(More)
Liposomes are widely utilized in molecular biology and medicine as drug carriers. Here we report a new liposome-cell interaction through connexins. Connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing liposomes were prepared by using cell-free transcription/translation systems with plasmids encoding Cx43 in the presence of liposome. The expressed membrane protein, Cx43, was(More)
The cellular environment differs from that of reconstituted materials mainly because of the presence of highly condensed biomacromolecules. To mimic the environment and conditions in living cells, we developed a method to prepare additive-free, highly concentrated cell extracts. First, we verified the requirement for specific salts and buffers for(More)
Spontaneous changes in the morphology of cell-size liposomes (dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, DOPC and egg PC) as model cells were investigated in the presence of cholesterol. Tube structures and liposome networks connected by the tubes were observed in the presence of 5-30% cholesterol by dark-field and laser-scanning microscopy. Furthermore, in the presence(More)
This paper describes design and empirically study of a communication interface in molecular communication. The communication interface hides the characteristics of the molecules during the propagation from the sender to a receiver to allow a generic transport of molecules independent of the characteristics. The authors of this paper propose a communication(More)