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Precursors of the olfactory interneurons migrate from the subventricular zone via the rostral migratory stream (RMS). To investigate the molecular mechanisms by which RMS cells migrate, we used a slice preparation, which allows the migrating cells to be imaged at very high temporal and spatial resolution in the presence of added inhibitors. Using(More)
Exposed to a forced walking stress for 2 weeks, some rats became persistently inactive (depression-model rats), whereas others gradually recovered from exhaustion (spontaneous recovery rats). We also studied rats exposed to short-term stress, rats without stress, and the model rats treated with imipramine or saline. We examined the density of noradrenergic(More)
BACKGROUND: Subventricular microglia (SVMs) are positioned at the interface of the cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma and may play a role in periventricular inflammatory reactions. However, SVMs have not been previously investigated in detail due to the lack of a specific methodology for their study exclusive of deeper parenchymal microglia. METHODS:(More)
Antidepressants such as desipramine induce axonal regeneration of brain noradrenergic neurons. This novel action of antidepressants suggests the involvement of degeneration or retraction of brain noradrenergic axons in the pathophysiology of clinical depression. The present study was designed to further confirm this view in an animal model of stress-induced(More)
To investigate whether the c-fms proto-oncogene plays a role in the CNS, we examined its expression in mouse brain. We found that c-fms-positive Purkinje cells first appeared in caudal cerebellum at postnatal day 0 (P0) arranged in a parasagittal manner, and most Purkinje cells gradually became positive by P6. This differential expression was not seen from(More)
Neuroblasts migrate from the subventricular zone along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb (OB). While the migration occurs by movement over other cells, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We have found that ADAM2 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 2) is expressed in migrating RMS neuroblasts and functions in their(More)
Microglia rapidly become reactive in response to diverse stimuli and are thought to be prominent participants in the pathophysiology of both acute injury and chronic neurological diseases. However, mature microglial reactions to a focal lesion have not been characterized dynamically in adult vertebrate tissue. Here, we present a detailed analysis of(More)
Rat aortic depressor nerve (ADN) contains only baroreceptor afferents. We identified 'aortic baroreceptor' neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) as those responding to electrical stimulation of the ADN and attempted to demonstrate convergence of cardiovascular mechanoreceptor inputs in these 'baroreceptor' neurons. In(More)
1. The effects of stimulation of the ventrolateral part of the midbrain periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) on the arterial baroreflex were investigated in urethane-chloralose anaesthetized and artificially ventilated rats. 2. Both electrical and chemical stimulation of the ventrolateral PAG provoked hypotension, vagal bradycardia and marked facilitation of(More)
Midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) provokes the defense reaction when stimulated. The present study was conducted to determine whether, and how, the PAG produces baroreflex inhibition, a feature characterizing the hypothalamic defense reaction. In chloralose-urethane anaesthetized rats, baroreflex vagal bradycardia and baroreflex hypotension were provoked(More)