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Leguminous plants produce 5-deoxyflavonoids and 5-deoxyisoflavonoids that play essential roles in legume-microbe interactions. Together with chalcone polyketide reductase and cytochrome P450 2-hydroxyisoflavanone synthase, the chalcone isomerase (CHI) of leguminous plants is fundamental in the construction of these ecophysiologically active flavonoids.(More)
Isoflavonoids are distributed predominantly in leguminous plants and play critical roles in plant physiology. A cytochrome P450 (P450), 2-hydroxyisoflavanone synthase, is the key enzyme in their biosynthesis. In cultured licorice (Glycyrrhiza echinata L., Fabaceae) cells, the production of both an isoflavonoid-derived phytoalexin (medicarpin) and a(More)
Glyceollins are soybean (Glycine max) phytoalexins possessing pterocarpanoid skeletons with cyclic ether decoration originating from a C5 prenyl moiety. Enzymes involved in glyceollin biosynthesis have been thoroughly characterized during the early era of modern plant biochemistry, and many genes encoding enzymes of isoflavonoid biosynthesis have been(More)
Many soil bacteria contain 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, which degrades ACC, a precursor of the phytohormone ethylene. In order to examine the regulation of the acdS gene encoding ACC deaminase in Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 during symbiosis with the host legume Lotus japonicus, we introduced the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene into(More)
In the genome of the model legume Lotus japonicus, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), which is the first committed enzyme of the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) pathways, is encoded as a tandemly arrayed five-gene family. Expression analysis revealed that both organ specificity and stress responsiveness differ among the DFRs. To elucidate the(More)
Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) is the first committed enzyme of the anthocyanin and condensed tannin pathways. Several DFR cDNAs have been cloned, and different specificities of DFR isozymes in the substrate hydroxylation patterns have been reported, but only fragmentary knowledge of DFR gene organization is available. Reported here is a comprehensive(More)
The Wm locus of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] controls flower color. Dominant Wm and recessive wm allele of the locus produce purple and magenta flower, respectively. A putative full-length cDNA of flavonol synthase (FLS), gmfls1 was isolated by 5' RACE and end-to-end PCR from a cultivar Harosoy with purple flower (WmWm). Sequence analysis revealed that(More)
The microsome of yeast cells overexpressing CYP81E1, a cytochrome P450 cDNA recently cloned from licorice (Glycyrrhiza echinata L., Fabaceae), catalyzed the hydroxylation of isoflavones, daidzein and formononetin, to yield 2'-hydroxyisoflavones, 2'-hydroxydaidzein, and 2'-hydroxyformononetin, respectively. The chemical structures of the reaction products(More)
The leguminous isoflavonoid skeleton is constructed by P450 2-hydroxyisoflavanone synthase (CYP93C). Two active-site residues of CYP93C2, Ser 310 and Lys 375, are critical for unusual aryl migration of the flavanone substrate. Leu 371 is located near the substrate in a homology model, and mutant proteins regarding this residue were expressed in recombinant(More)
Differential screening by PCR-select subtraction was carried out for cDNAs from leaves of red and green perilla, two chemovarietal forms of Perilla frutescens regarding anthocyanin accumulation. One hundred and twenty cDNA fragments were selected as the clones preferentially expressed in anthocyanin-accumulating red perilla over the nonaccumulating green(More)