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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
Activation tagging using T-DNA vectors that contain multimerized transcriptional enhancers from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S gene has been applied to Arabidopsis plants. New activation-tagging vectors that confer resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin or the herbicide glufosinate have been used to generate several tens of thousands of transformed(More)
BACKGROUND Data from the human motor cortex suggest that, depending on polarity, direct current (DC) brain polarization can depress or activate cortical neurons. Activating effects on the frontal lobe might be beneficial for patients with frontal lobe disorders. This phase 1 study tested the safety of frontal DC, including its effects on frontal and other(More)
The sequence determination of the entire genome of the Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 was completed. The total length of the genome finally confirmed was 3,573,470 bp, including the previously reported sequence of 1,003,450 bp from map position 64% to 92% of the genome. The entire sequence was assembled from the sequences of the physical map-based contigs(More)
Cytokinins are a class of phytohormones involved in various physiological events of plants. The Arabidopsis sensor histidine kinase CRE1 was recently reported to be a cytokinin receptor. We used a steroid-inducible system to show that the transcription factor-type response regulator ARR1 directs transcriptional activation of the ARR6 gene, which responds to(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) for the early diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). METHODS Thirty-six consecutive patients (age 56 to 82 years) were enrolled, and 26 were examined by DWI. Nine were definite based on the World Health Organization criteria, and 27 were probable. The percentages of DWI(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome of Arabidopsis thaliana has been determined. The genome as a circular DNA composed of 154,478 bp containing a pair of inverted repeats of 26,264 bp, which are separated by small and large single copy regions of 17,780 bp and 84,170 bp, respectively. A total of 87 potential protein-coding genes(More)
Myelin is the lipoprotein multimembrane that functions as an insulator preventing the flow of ion currents across the axonal membrane and facilitating the conduction of nerve impulses. It is synthesized by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system at about the time of birth in mammals. During the initial stages of myelination, several proteins are(More)
BACKGROUND fMRI language tasks reliably identify language areas in presurgical epilepsy patients, but activation using single paradigms may disagree with the intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT). OBJECTIVE To determine whether a panel of fMRI tasks targeting different aspects of language processing increases accuracy in determining hemisphere language(More)